Table 1.

Characteristics at baseline and last follow-up visit of participants with progressive albuminuria (progressors) and matched controls (matched for baseline albuminuria, age, and sex)

CharacteristicHealthy Participants (n=109)Cohort (n=8394)Progressors (n=183)Matched Controls (n=366)P Value
BaselineBaselineBaselineLast Follow-Up VisitBaselineLast Follow-Up Visit
Age (yr)38 (12)50 (13)59 (11)67 (11)59 (11)67 (11)0.88
Male 65 (60)50777777770.97
Follow-up (yr)8.6 (6.5–9.7)8.5 (6.2–9.5)
Smoking 38402336180.39
Baseline history CVD 0514110.24
BMI (kg/m2)24.6 (2.8)26.1 (4.2)28.3 (4.1)28.7 (4.8)27.5 (4.1)27.6 (4.8)0.03
SBP (mmHg)122 (12)129 (20)141 (21)146 (23)145 (23)138 (20)0.08
DBP (mmHg)72 (8)74 (10)79 (9)79 (10)81 (10.6)77 (9)0.02
BP-lowering drugs 015416027580.001
 ACEi/ARB05.514360.36
 CCA014.68.70.08
Hypertension 033667865690.78
Cholesterol (mmol/L)218 (43)226 (47)191 (47)230 (43)191 (43)0.07
Lipid-lowering drugs 06143811350.42
Hypercholesterolemia 40475453500.18
Glucose (mg/dl)88 (82–95)85 (77–92)90 (83–101)99 (88–117)90 (83–103)97 (86–110)0.35
Glucose-lowering drugs 024185170.74
Diabetes mellitus03122111180.90
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)99 (13)81 (14)75 (17)74 (24)76 (14)77 (19)0.78
Albuminuria (mg/24 h)7.7 (6.3–12.9)9 (6–17)58 (33–106)254 (188–410)52 (31–88)39 (17–80)0.24
  • Data are presented as the percentage, mean (SD), or median (25th–75th) percentile. P values are shown for difference in baseline values between progressors and controls. P values are calculated using the Mann–Whitney U test comparing baseline values in progressors versus matched controls. CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic BP; DBP, diastolic BP; ACEi, angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCA, calcium channel antagonist; eGFR, estimated GFR.