Table 2.

Logistic regression results comparing the association between patient, facility, and geographic characteristics with the odds of four or more provider visits

VariableOdds RatioLCIUCIP Value
Men0.990.981.010.32
Age (yr)
 Under 50Reference
 50–751.141.121.17<0.001
 Over 751.171.141.20<0.001
Race
 WhiteReference
 American Indian0.680.640.72<0.001
 Black1.211.191.23<0.001
 Othera0.730.700.76<0.001
Hispanic ethnicity0.950.920.97<0.001
Drugs or alcohol abuse0.780.750.81<0.001
Medicaid coverage1.010.991.030.21
Comorbidity score by quintile
 First (score 0–1)Reference
 Second (score 2)1.091.061.11<0.001
 Third (score 3–4)1.131.101.16<0.001
 Fourth (score 5–6)1.171.141.20<0.001
 Fifth (score over 6)1.171.141.20<0.001
Recent hospitalizations by quintileb
 First, second, and third (0 d)Reference
 Fourth (1–6 d)0.950.940.97<0.001
 Fifth (over 6 d)0.900.890.92<0.001
First year of dialysis0.910.890.92<0.001
Facility size by quintile
 First (under 49 patients)Reference
 Second (49–74 patients)1.191.161.22<0.001
 Third (75–101 patients)1.491.451.53<0.001
 Fourth (102–140 patients)1.401.371.44<0.001
 Fifth (over 140 patients)1.561.521.60<0.001
Nonprofit facility0.960.940.97<0.001
One additional advanced practitioner in facility1.161.141.19<0.001
One additional nephrologist in area1.271.251.28<0.001
Facility in small town or rural area0.820.790.85<0.001
  • a Other race includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Mideast, Indian subcontinent, multiracial, and unknown.

  • b Hospitalizations in the past 6 months. Wald tests comparing absolute regression coefficient size for the most significant indicator of patient acuity (fifth quintile of comorbidity index) with coefficients for facility and geographic characteristics show significantly larger (P<0.001) associations for all facility and geographic coefficients except for nonprofit and advanced practitioners. Supplemental Material (Supplemental Table 3) shows a linear probability model exploring the negative association between hospitalizations and visit frequency. LCI, lower 95% confidence interval; UCI, upper 95% confidence interval.