Table 1.

Patient, facility, and geographic characteristics in patients stratified by percentage of months with four or more provider visits

Quintile of Mean Visit FrequencyTotal Population
FirstSecondThirdFourth and Fifth
Patient-months with four or more visits (%)a4.458.087.1100.068.8
Demographic
 Men (%)44.346.246.445.645.7
 Age (yr; %)
  Under 5020.623.219.617.920.0
  50–7554.654.957.157.056.1
  Over 7524.822.023.325.123.9
 Race (%)
  American Indiana2.91.61.31.21.7
  Blacka30.241.142.741.339.5
  Whitea61.053.252.353.454.5
  Other raceb5.94.13.64.04.3
 Hispanic ethnicity13.513.212.713.013.1
Socioeconomic (%)
 Drug or alcohol abuse3.34.02.82.53.1
 Medicaid coverage43.746.845.445.345.4
Hospitalizations and comorbidities
 Comorbidity score by quintile (%)c
  First (0–1 points)a25.823.823.621.523.4
  Second (2 points)20.219.419.719.419.6
  Third (3–4 points)21.821.722.722.622.2
  Fourth (5–6 points)17.117.718.118.918.1
  Fifth (over 6 points)15.117.415.817.616.6
 Days hospitalized in past 6 months by quintile (%)
  First, second, and third (0 d)61.158.061.360.360.2
  Fourth (1–6 days)19.521.421.119.220.2
  Fifth (over 6 days)19.420.617.720.519.6
 First year of ESRD11.710.46.911.510.2
Facility and geographic
 Facility size by quintile (%)
  First (under 49 patients)a27.220.518.217.320.2
  Second (49–74 patients)22.021.319.518.320.0
  Third (75–101 patients)a17.220.221.621.720.5
  Fourth (102–140 patients)17.819.220.520.619.7
  Fifth (over 140 patients)a15.718.820.122.019.6
 Nonprofit facility (%)27.023.022.924.924.3
 Advanced practitioners in a facility, mean (SD)0.060.060.070.080.07 (0.4)
 Nephrologists per 100,000 population, mean (SD)a2.02.12.12.22.1 (0.7)
 Rural/small town (%)a8.25.35.14.65.5
  • a Greater than 10% standardized difference between lowest and highest quintiles of visit frequency.

  • b Other race includes Asian, Pacific Islander, Mideast, Indian subcontinent, multiracial, and unknown.

  • c Based on a Modified Charlson Comorbidity Score (points for renal disease not included) (14).