Table 1.

Differences in less- and more-modifiable patient characteristics by race at onset of evaluation

Less- and More-Modifiable Patient CharacteristicsBlack (n=183)White (n=512)P Value
Less-modifiable characteristics
Demographics
  Age (yr); mean (SD)50.9 (11.5)53.3 (11.8)0.02
  Men; % (n)51.9 (95)61.1 (313)0.03
  Education: some college or more; % (n)48.6 (89)61.9 (317)0.002
  Had more comprehensive insurance; % (n)79.8 (145)88.1 (450)0.005
Clinical characteristics; % (n)
  Perceived health: good/very good/excellent61.8 (113)63.9 (327)0.61
  Had diabetes mellitus28.4 (52)31.5 (161)0.45
  Had hypertension55.7 (102)33.0 (169)<0.001
  Had polycystic kidney diseasea1.6 (3)14.7 (75)<0.001
  Had cancera1.1 (2)2.2 (11)0.53
Time to transplant presentation; % (n)
  Had been on dialysis≥2 yr83.1 (152)60.2 (306)<0.001
Psychosocial characteristics; % (n)
  Reported trusting hospitals79.8 (146)88.4 (449)0.004
  Had depression39.0 (71)35.0 (178)0.33
  Had anxiety26.9 (49)32.7 (166)0.14
 Burden of kidney disease; mean (SD)46.6 (27.5)45.0 (27.7)0.49
More-modifiable characteristics
Transplant education received before evaluation onset; % (n)
  Physician recommended that patient call transplant center82.0 (150)87.1 (446)0.09
  Talked with a prior kidney recipient for any length of time59.0 (108)58.0 (297)0.81
  Talked to family and friends about transplant for any length of time72.7 (133)80.1 (410)0.04
  Received adequate prior transplant education38.8 (71)54.3 (278)<0.001
Transplant knowledge and decision-making
  Higher transplant knowledge;b % (n)20.8 (38)50.2 (257)<0.001
  Later stages of willingness to get on the deceased donation waiting list;c % (n)66.5 (121)79.3 (406)<0.001
  Later stages of willingness to allow a living donor to volunteerc; % (n)21.0 (38)39.5 (202)<0.001
  Perceived benefits to transplant; mean (SD)13.4 (4.1)14.4 (3.8)0.004
  Perceived disadvantages to transplant; mean (SD)11.8 (3.6)12.2 (3.4)0.20
  • a Two-tailed probability from Fisher’s exact test reported because of small cell size.

  • b Twelve-item scale dichotomized such that greater knowledge=9–12 answers correct and lower knowledge=0–8 answers correct.

  • c Variable dichotomized such that later stages of willingness are action/maintenance and earlier stages of willingness are precontemplation/contemplation/preparation.