Table 1.

Characteristics of patients with and without metabolic syndrome at the time of being classified as CKD

VariableMetabolic Syndrome Present (n=15,605)Metabolic Syndrome Absent (n=10,263)Metabolic Syndrome Data Not Available (n=17,678)
Age (yr)71.0±10.974.4±11.373.1±12.5
Man, n (%)7212 (46.2)4638 (45.2)7752 (43.9)
African Americans, n (%)1899 (12.2)1214 (11.8)2100 (11.9)
Diabetes, n (%)6969 (44.7)709 (6.9)1458 (8.2)
Hypertension, n (%)15,422 (98.8)9303 (90.6)13,631 (77.1)
Coronary artery disease, n (%)4699 (30.1)2355 (22.9)1610 (9.1)
Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)1791 (11.5)1089 (10.6)840 (4.8)
Congestive heart failure, n (%)1614 (10.3)766 (7.5)941 (5.3)
Malignancy, n (%)2957 (18.9)2100 (20.5)5168 (29.2)
Smoking (%)
 No13,216 (84.7)8697 (84.7)10,474 (59.2)
 Smoke1172 (7.5)667 (6.5)1045 (5.9)
 Missing1217 (7.8)899 (8.8)6159 (34.8)
CKD stages
 Stage 3a (GFR=45–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2)10,399 (66.6)7269 (70.8)10,273 (58.1)
 Stage 3b (GFR=30–44 ml/min per 1.73 m2)4012 (25.7)2373 (23.1)5463 (30.9)
 Stage 4 (GFR=15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2)1194 (7.7)621 (6.1)1942 (11.0)
Number of encounters in Electronic Health Record56.3±43.247.3±37.831.6±36.3
Body mass index (%; kg m2)
 <18.556 (0.36)166 (1.6)301 (1.7)
 18.5–24.91940 (12.4)3571 (34.8)4592 (26.0)
 25–29.94483 (28.7)4783 (46.6)5522 (31.2)
 30–34.94939 (31.7)785 (7.6)3133 (17.7)
 35–39.92219 (14.2)268 (2.6)1395 (7.9)
 ≥401501 (9.6)146 (1.4)976 (5.5)
 Missing467 (3.0)544 (5.3)1759 (10.0)
Albumin (g/dl)4.2±0.424.2±0.403.9±0.55
Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.0±1.713.1±1.612.6±1.9
Serum triglycerides (mg/dl)278.8±226.4143.7±84.2NA
HDL cholesterol level (mg/dl)39.7±11.055.4±14.7NA
Use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (%)12,024 (77.1)6000 (58.5)8311 (47.0)
Use of antihypertensives (%)14,471 (92.7)8159 (79.5)11,943 (67.6)
Use of statins (%)11,584 (74.2)5818 (56.7)6109 (34.6)
Use of fibrates (%)2018 (12.9)289 (2.8)687 (3.9)
Proteinuria,a n (%)2648 (30)834 (17.5)2105 (29.1)
  • All variables are P<0.05 comparing metabolic syndrome data available versus not available, except African American. Continuous variables compared using t test, and categorical variables compared using chi-square test.

  • a Data missing for 52% of study population.