Table 2.

Summary of β-trace protein clinical studies of renal impairment and cardiovascular risk

AuthorsYearRef.PublicationMain Findings
Renal transplantation
 Pöge et al.Pöge et al.20052008925Clin ChemAm J TransplantBTP levels are not influenced by corticosteroid administration
 Risch et al.200135Clin Chem
 Risch et al.200536Clin Chim Acta
Renal injury in diabetes mellitus
 Uehara et al.200937Nephrol Dial TransplantBTP levels increase the power to detect the early stage of renal injury in type 2 diabetes
 Yoshikawa et al.200738Diabetes Res Clin Pract
CKD
 Dajak et al.201040Clin Chim ActaEarly detection of renal tubular damage
 Donadio201041Am J Physiol Renal Physiol
Heart hypoxemia
 Han et al.20094Biochem Biophys Res CommunAdaptive mechanism to pressure overload
Heart ischemia
 Tokudome et al.200910J Clin InvestProtect cardiomyocytes against cell death induced by ischemia
Stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque
 Cipollone et al.200412Arterioscler Thromb Vasc BiolHigher BTP expression in asymptomatic plaques
 Inoue et al.200813AtherosclerosisConcentrates retinoids in the AP, inhibiting the proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells and atherosclerosis progression
 Taba et al.200345Am J Physiol Heart Circ PhysiolInhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase
 Negoro et al.200243J HypertensSuppresses expression of proinflammatory mediator PAI-1
 Negoro et al.200546Life SciSuppresses expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
 Rossi et al.200048NatureActivation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ and inhibition of NF-κB activity
Endothelial injury
 Taba et al.200042Circ ResSteady laminar shear stress stimulates BTP expression in endothelial cells, thereby inhibiting endothelial cell apoptosis
Hypertension
 Hirawa et al.200214HypertensionBTP overexpression protects against cardiac overload
Hypertensive CKD
 Bhavsar et al.201126Am J Kidney DisPlasma BTP may be useful in evaluating risk of progression of kidney disease
Vasospastic angina
 Matsumoto et al.201116Circ JBTP elevation is associated with the degree of coronary vasoconstriction (higher arterial shear stress)
Acute decompensated heart failure
 Manzano-Fernández et al.201115J Am Coll CardiolBTP predicts mortality, heart failure, hospitalization, and adverse cardiovascular events (These findings also apply to the next three studies.)
Hemodialysis patients
 Shafi et al.201230CJASN
General population
 Astor et al.201227Am J Kidney Dis
Acute coronary syndromes
 Manzano-Fernández et al.201217Am J Cardiol
  • ΑP, apoptosis protein; BTP, β-trace protein; PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PPARγ. peroxisome proliferator-activate receptor-γ.