Table 4.

Risk of all-cause mortality by lifestyle factors among participants in Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with CKD

VariableAge-Adjusted All-Cause Mortality Rate per 1000 Person-Year (95% CI) (%)Demographic Characteristic–Adjusted HR (95% CI) (n=2223)aP ValueFully Adjusted HR (95% CI) (n=2145)bP Value
Body mass index
 18.5 to <22 kg/m261.2 (60.5–61.9)1.19 (0.97–1.46)0.091.30 (1.03–1.64)0.03
 22 to <25 kg/m256.5 (55.9–57.2)ReferentReferent
 25 to <30 kg/m255.9 (55.4–56.3)0.97 (0.81–1.17)0.771.00 (0.82–1.22)1.00
 ≥30 kg/m253.8 (53.5–54.1)0.96 (0.77–1.21)0.730.87 (0.71–1.07)0.17
Physical activity
 Inactive65.1 (64.4–65.7)ReferentReferent
 Insufficient54.2 (53.7–54.6)0.76 (0.60–0.96)0.020.86 (0.67–1.10)0.22
 Recommended51.7 (51.3–52.2)0.73 (0.57–0.92)0.010.80 (0.65–0.99)0.04
Cigarette smoking
 Current smoker92.2 (91.7–92.8)ReferentReferent
 Past smoker59.2 (58.7–59.7)0.63 (0.51–0.78)<0.010.61 (0.50–0.76)<0.01
 Never smoker47.3 (46.4–48.2)0.53 (0.41–0.67)<0.010.54 (0.41–0.70)<0.01
Healthy Eating Index score
 <54.565.2 (64.5–66.0)ReferentReferent
 54.5 to <63.760.1 (59.5–60.7)0.92 (0.74–1.14)0.431.02 (0.80–1.31)0.86
 63.7 to <73.158.5 (58.0–59.0)0.93 (0.74–1.14)0.551.02 (0.78–1.33)0.87
 73.1–10049.5 (49.1–49.8)0.81 (0.62–1.06)0.120.94 (0.71–1.25)0.66
Weighted healthy lifestyle score, quartiles
 1 (−4 to 6 points)85.1 (83.9–86.4)ReferentReferent
 2 (7–9 points)54.5 (54.1–54.9)0.59 (0.46–0.75)<0.010.53 (0.41–0.68)<0.01
 3 (10–11 points)51.5 (51.0–52.0)0.58 (0.48–0.70)<0.010.52 (0.42–0.63)<0.01
 4 (12–15 points)47.7 (47.5–48.0)0.54 (0.44–0.67)<0.010.47 (0.38–0.60)<0.01
  • HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and other), annual household income (<$20,000 versus ≥$20,000), and education (high school, yes versus no).

  • b In addition to demographic factors, adjusted for CKD Epidemiology Collaboration–estimated GFR, microalbuminuria (<30, 30 to >300, ≥300 mg/g), diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, systolic BP, serum cholesterol (<200 versus ≥200 mg/dl), use of statin (yes versus no), and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (yes versus no). Models for each individual component of the healthy lifestyle score were adjusted for the other three components.