Table 2.

Characteristics of Participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with CKD by Healthy Lifestyle Score

 Demographic and Clinical VariablesWeighted Healthy Lifestyle Score Quartiles
Points−4 to 67–910–1112–15
Mean age (yr)51.8±1.159.3±1.963.5±1.461.4±1.4
Sex (%)
Race/ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic white73.478.480.575.5
 Non-Hispanic black14.011.710.211.4
Annual household income ≥$20,000 (%)47.853.056.057.4
Graduated from high school (%)61.560.059.666.4
Mean CKD-EPI eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)88.4±1.778.3±2.471.9±2.174.4±1.7
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (%)
 <30 mg/g13.328.134.734.1
 30 to <300 mg/g75.862.358.555.2
 ≥300 mg/g10.99.56.810.7
CKD KDOQI stage (%)
Mean body mass index (kg/m2)26.3±0.524.7±0.329.1±0.430.9±0.4
Median physical activity, times per week
 Moderate0.9 (0–6.0)0.7 (0–2.5)1.8 (0.4–6.7)5.5 (1.3–8.3)
 Vigorous1.8 (0.7–2.7)0.6 (0.4–1.6)1.6 (0.3–3.2)2.2 (0.8–4.4)
Smoking (%)
Mean Healthy Eating Index score59.9±0.762.5±0.866.5±0.870.8±0.6
Healthy Eating Index score > 64 (%)35.843.759.871.0
Mean systolic BP (mmHg)132±1.5135±1.4140±1.4140±1.5
Mean diastolic BP (mmHg)76±0.874±0.877±0.877±0.6
Cardiovascular disease (%)a11.619.522.112.9
Diabetes mellitus (%)17.819.525.928.8
Cancer (%)
Family history of premature CHD (%)b10.712.57.313.0
Ideal waist circumference (%)c44.638.364.776.3
Cholesterol level < 200 mg/dl (%)58.160.867.572.4
Statin use (%)
ACE inhibitor/ARB use (%)6.212.415.411.3
  • Percentages are weighted. Means are expressed with SEM. Medians are expressed with interquartile range. CKD-EPI, CKD Epidemiology Collaboration; eGFR, estimated GFR; KDOQI, Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative; CHD, coronary heart disease; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker.

  • a Includes history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, or stroke.

  • b First-degree relative with history of myocardial infarction at age <50 years.

  • c Waist circumference <88 cm in women and <102 cm in men.