Table 6.

Intention-to-treat Cox proportional hazards model of associations between key covariates and time to all-cause mortality or initiation of dialysis based on covariates measured on the day creatinine doubled from baseline (AKIN stage 2 criteria)

CovariateUnivariable Analysis, Derivation CohortParsimonious Multivariable Model, Derivation CohortShort Multivariable Model, Derivation Cohort
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Demographics
 Age (per 10 yr)1.00 (0.96–1.04)0.98
 Male sex1.33 (1.17–1.52)<0.001
 Black (versus other races)0.64 (0.55–0.76)<0.0010.80 (0.67–0.95)0.01
Hospital location
 Surgical service (versus medical service)0.82 (0.72–0.93)0.0020.57 (0.49–0.66)<0.0010.64 (0.55–0.74)<0.001
 ICU (versus other hospital location)4.48 (3.86–5.19)<0.0011.82 (1.51–2.20)<0.001
Comorbidities (present at admission)
 HIV0.64 (0.33–1.22)0.17
Congestive heart failure1.17 (1.03–1.33)0.020.88 (0.76–1.01)0.06
 Diabetes0.85 (0.73–0.99)0.04
 Liver disease2.37 (2.08–2.69)<0.0011.60 (1.39–1.85)<0.0011.61 (1.40–1.86)<0.001
 Malignancy1.47 (1.22–1.78)<0.001
 Metastatic solid tumor1.57 (1.31–1.89)<0.0011.58 (1.25–2.01)<0.001
 Myocardial infarction1.28 (1.07–1.52)<0.001
 Peptic ulcer disease1.73 (1.27–2.34)<0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease1.18 (1.00–1.40)0.06
 Pulmonary disease0.84 (0.65–1.09)0.19
Laboratory values
 Baseline creatinine (per 0.1 mg/dl)1.12 (1.10–1.14)<0.001
 Bicarbonate (per mEq/L)0,86 (0,85–0.87)<0.0010.93 (0.92–0.95)<0.0010.91 (0.89–0.92)<0.001
 BUN (per 10 mg/dl)1.17 (1.15–1.20)<0.0011.12 (1.09–1.15)<0.0011.15 (1.12–1.18)<0.001
 Change in creatinine from day prior (per 0.1 mg/dl)1.05 (1.04–1.06)<0.0011.03 (1.02–1.04)<0.0011.03 (1.02–1.04)<0.001
 Creatinine (per mg/dl)1.58 (1.44–1.73)<0.001
 Potassium (per mEq/L)1.80 (1.69–1.91)<0.0011.23 (1.13–1.33)<0.001
Medications
 Number of sedatives (per drug)1.66 (1.57–1.74)<0.001
 Prior aminoglycoside exposure1.19 (1.03–1.38)0.02
 Number of antibiotics (per drug)1.39 (1.34–1.44)<0.0011.07 (1.02–1.12)0.003
 Number of pressors (per drug)1.87 (1.78–1.97)<0.0011.34 (1.25–1.44)<0.0011.69 (1.59–1.80)<0.001
 Paralytic exposure3.53 (2.89–4.30)<0.0011.48 (1.19–1.85)<0.001
 Thiazide diuretic1.17 (0.98–1.40)0.09
Other orders
 Ventilated3.78 (3.33–4.28)<0.0011.58 (1.35–1.86)<0.001
  • n=3848 patient-days, 3848 patients, and 954 outcome events. Data were censored at 14 days from the onset of AKI or August 31, 2010, whichever came first. AKIN, Acute Kidney Injury Network; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; ICU, intensive care unit.