Table 2.

Adjusted ORs and 95% CIs of elevated serum β-trace protein (≥0.81 mg/L), elevated serum β2-microglobulin (≥2.80 mg/L), elevated standard cystatin C (≥1.03 mg/L), and elevated standard creatinine (men, ≥1.0 mg/dl; women, ≥1.2 mg/dl) in persons aged ≥20 years

β-Trace Protein
(≥0.81 mg/L)β2-Microglobulin
(≥2.80 mg/L)Standard Cystatin C (≥1.03 mg/L)Creatinine (Men, ≥1.0 mg/dl;
Women, ≥1.2 mg/dl)
≥20 yr (n=6682 [1220])≥20 yr (n=6688 [1204])≥20 yr (n=6742 [1680])≥20 yr (n=6742 [966])
OR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIPOR95% CIP
Age (yr)1.091.06–1.12<0.011.091.07–1.11<0.011.101.08–1.12<0.011.061.05–1.07<0.01
Female sex0.620.44–0.88<0.011.260.88–1.800.200.870.65–1.160.330.600.46–0.77<0.01
Race/ethnicitya
 Non-Hispanic black0.520.37–0.73<0.011.040.78–1.400.790.760.53–1.070.113.092.54–3.75<0.01
 Mexican American0.560.37–0.84<0.010.820.57–1.180.280.850.48–1.490.560.440.31–0.62<0.01
BMI (per 5 kg/m2)0.930.81–1.060.280.830.75–0.92<0.011.231.06–1.430.010.990.86–1.130.84
Hypertension2.101.54–2.86<0.011.661.35–2.03<0.011.721.27–2.32<0.012.151.75–2.64<0.01
Diabetes1.060.77–1.470.711.370.91–2.070.131.170.84–1.620.351.170.87–1.570.30
Current smoker0.980.61–1.580.930.970.66–1.430.871.440.96–2.170.080.750.58–0.980.04
CRP (mg/dl)b
 0.22–1.01.300.95–1.790.101.751.32–2.30<0.011.130.86–1.480.391.180.95–1.460.13
 >1.02.121.37–3.28<0.014.102.65–6.33<0.012.491.60–3.86<0.011.651.08–2.530.02
Triglycerides (mg/dl)0.840.56–1.270.410.980.66–1.460.931.501.08–2.090.021.701.32–2.20<0.01
HDL (per 10 mg/dl)0.890.79–1.000.050.790.68–0.91<0.010.870.80–0.94<0.010.950.87–1.040.27
Education ≥12 yr0.650.48–0.87<0.010.730.58–0.910.010.760.61–0.960.020.840.66–1.050.12
  • Numbers in brackets represent individuals with an elevated β-trace protein (≥0.81 mg/L) and elevated β2-microglobulin (≥2.80 mg/L). Triglycerides were analyzed on a logarithmic scale (ln). Triglycerides may be converted from mg/dl to mmol/L by multiplying by 0.0113. HDL may be converted from mg/dl to mmol/L by multiplying by 0.0259. OR, odds ratio; 95% CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein.

  • a Reference group is non-Hispanic whites.

  • b Reference group is individuals with CRP <0.22 mg/dl.