Table 1.

Baseline characteristics and unadjusted analyses of patients in the derivation and validation cohorts

CharacteristicDerivation Cohort HUP (n=4263)Validation PAH (n=758)Validation PMC (n=1098)P Value
HUP versus PAHHUP versus PMC
Male sex2366 (55.5)332 (43.8)561 (51.1)<0.0010.01
Black1011 (23.7)238 (31.4)445 (40.5)<0.001<0.001
Surgical service2355 (55.2)278 (36.7)217 (19.8)<0.001<0.001
HIV/AIDS63 (1.5)33 (4.4)46 (4.2)<0.001<0.001
Malignancy408 (9.6)144 (19.0)135 (12.3)<0.0010.01
Congestive heart failure1478 (34.7)239 (31.5)501 (45.6)0.09<0.001
Cardiovascular disease433 (10.2)49 (6.5)121 (11.0)0.0010.40
Dementia22 (0.5)7 (0.9)31 (2.8)0.17<0.001
Diabetes mellitus1037 (24.3)227 (29.9)388 (35.3)0.001<0.001
Hemiplegia1112 (2.6)19 (2.5)22 (2.0)0.840.24
Metastatic solid tumor399 (9.4)89 (11.7)65 (5.9)0.04<0.001
Myocardial infarction538 (12.6)109 (14.4)219 (19.9)0.18<0.001
Liver disease847 (19.9)102 (13.5)140 (12.8)<0.001<0.001
Pulmonary disease302 (7.1)195 (25.7)414 (37.7)<0.001<0.001
Peripheral vascular disease594 (13.9)94 (12.4)167 (15.2)0.260.28
Rheumatic disease124 (2.9)31 (4.1)41 (3.7)0.080.16
Peptic ulcer disease113 (2.7)17 (2.2)27 (2.5)0.520.72
Age (SD)59.1 (16.3)64.0 (16.5)65.6 (14.9)<0.001<0.001
Baseline creatinine, mg/dl (SD)0.80 (0.26)0.79 (0.26)0.84 (0.26)0.35<0.001
Hospital stay before AKI (d), median (IQR)3 (2–8)3 (2–7)3 (1–6)0.26<0.001
Onset of AKI to doubling of creatinine (d), median (IQR)1 (0–2)1 (0–1)1 (0–2)<0.0010.15
Time from AKI to RRT( d), median (IQR)a4 (1–9)6 (2–9)3.5 (1–9)0.090.39
  • Data expressed as n (%) except where noted. HUP, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania; PAH, Pennsylvania Hospital; PMC, Presbyterian Medical Center; RRT, renal replacement therapy.

  • a Among patients receiving RRT.