Table 1.

AKI after LVAD implantation

Author (Reference)LVAD TypeAKI Incidence (%)Mortality (%)Comments and Definition of AKI
McCarthy et al. (26)PulsatileAKI: 63AKI = RRT
No AKI: 14
Kaltenmaier et al. (49)Pulsatile55/227 (24)AKI: 93AKI = RRT
No AKI at 6 mo: 60Percentage achieving heart transplantation: 11% AKI versus 49% no AKI
Frazier et al. (50)Pulsatile158/280 (56)AKI = SCr ≥2.2 mg/dl or BUN ≥50 mg/dl. Of 158 with AKI, 94 had RD before LVAD implantation
Haddad et al. (51)Pulsatile4/54 (7)AKI = RRT
Deng et al. (52)Pulsatile 90%85/412 (21)AKI = ND
Topkara et al. (53)Pulsatile65/201 (32)AKI: 57AKI = RRT
No AKI at 1 yr: 21BTT: 52% AKI versus 83% no AKI
Feller et al. (54)Pulsatile2/13 (15)AKI = RRT
Continuous4/14 (29)
Miller et al. (55)Continuous18/133 (14)AKI = ND
Sandner et al. (44)Pulsatile9/29 (31)P: 78AKI = RRT; 24% of AKI underwent heart transplantation
Continuous24/63 (38)C: 62 at 6 mo
Alba et al. (56)Pulsatile and continuous24/53 (45)AKI: 62AKI = Fulfillment of any RIFLE criteria; 62.5% AKI required CRRT
No AKI: 12
Sandner et al. (23)Continuous30/86 (35)AKI: 71AKI = RRT
No AKI: 22
Genovese et al. (57)Pulsatile and continuous22/163 (13)AKI: 68AKI = ND; AKI associated 3-fold increased mortality
No AKI at 1 yr: 35
Demirozu et al. (58)Continuous15/107 (14)40AKI = RRT
Starling et al. (21)Continuous17/169 (10)AKI = ND
Park et al. (20)Continuous51/414 (12)AKI = ND
Hasin et al. (47)Continuous8/83 (10)25AKI = RRT
50% remained on chronic RRT
Yoshioka et al. (29)Pulsatile and continuousINTERMACS level 1: 12/41 (29); level 2/3: 3/43 (7)AKI = RRT; percentage with continuous LVAD: level 1, 15%; level 2/3, 46%
  • LVAD, left ventricular assist device; AKI = RRT, AKI defined as need for RRT, usually as CRRT; SCr, serum creatinine; RD, renal dysfunction; AKI = ND, criteria for AKI not defined; BTT, bridge to transplantation; RRT, renal replacement therapy; P, pulsatile-flow LVAD; C, continuous-flow LVAD; CRRT, continuous renal replacement therapy; INTERMACS, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support.