Table 1.

General patient characteristics by group at baseline and at 1-year follow-up

CharacteristicBaseline1 YearHCO3 Group P Value: 1 Year versus BaselineFruits and Vegetables Group P Value:
1 Year versus Baseline
HCO3 Group (n=35)Fruits and Vegetables Group (n=36)P Value for Fruits and Vegetables Group versus HCO3 GroupHCO3 Group (n=35)Fruits and Vegetables Group (n=36)P Value for Fruits and Vegetables Group versus HCO3 Group
Men (%)51560.92
Black/white/Hispanic (%)57/29/1456/31/14>0.99
Age (yr)54.2±5.353.9±6.90.86
Weight (kg)84.3±5.482.7±6.10.2484.4±5.078.0±5.3<0.010.87<0.01
Systolic BP (mmHg)136.1±4.7136.3±4.80.88136.0±4.4131.7±3.3<0.010.84<0.01
Plasma creatinine (mg/dl)3.9±0.33.9±0.90.994.2±0.34.1±1.00.49<0.01<0.01
Plasma cystatin C (mg/L)4.1±0.34.1±0.90.994.4±0.34.3±1.00.60<0.01<0.01
Potential renal acid load (mmol/d)59.0±6.562.1±6.80.0559.3±6.339.6±10.4<0.010.28<0.01
Plasma [K+] (mEq/L)4.1±0.24.1±0.20.844.1±0.24.1±0.10.25<0.050.59
8h U KV (mEq)18.9±3.520.0±3.70.1819.8±3.423.3±4.1<0.01<0.01<0.01
FEK (%)45.8±13.149.3±13.90.2851.9±14.060.0±17.50.04<0.01<0.01
Plasma [Na+] (mEq/L)139.9±1.2139.8±1.30.59140.0±1.2139.8±1.00.280.690.88
8h U NaV (mEq)38.3±6.740.0±6.40.2943.1±8.535.9±6.0<0.01<0.01<0.01
FENa (%)2.7±0.82.9±0.70.403.3±0.92.7±0.7<0.01<0.01<0.01
Plasma aldosterone (pg/ml)117.4±12.9113.7±12.10.22101.6±9.8119.9±12.6<0.01<0.01<0.01
  • Unless otherwise noted, values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Patients in the HCO3 group were subsequently given oral NaHCO3, 1.0 mEq/kg body weight per day. Patients in the fruits and vegetables group were given fruits and vegetables in amounts designed to reduce potential renal acid load by 50%. Presented are P values for comparisons between the HCO3 and fruits and vegetables groups at baseline and at 1 year and the 1-year compared with baseline values within the HCO3 and fruits and vegetables groups. 8h U KV, 8-hour urine K+ excretion; FEK, urine fractional excretion of K+; 8h U NaV, 8-hour urine Na+ excretion; FENa, urine fractional excretion of Na+