Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the study population

No CKDeGFRcreatinine OnlyACR OnlyeGFRcystatin OnlyeGFRcreatinine and eGFRcystatineGFRcreatinine and ACReGFRcystatin and ACRAll Abnormal
Participants (n)7950219476476185246396
Age (yr)62.1 (5.5)65.4 (5.4)63 (5.8)65.3 (5.6)67.5 (4.7)65.6 (5.5)66.1 (5.3)66.8 (5.2)
White78.582.759.584.284.354.276.266.7
Female57.561.658.264.163.254.247.654.2
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)201.8 (35.8)211.6 (38.2)200.7 (38.2)198.5 (37.5)205.2 (38.3)226.3 (47.8)202.6 (56)205.9 (38.3)
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)123.4 (32.9)130.2 (36.7)120.8 (34.5)120.9 (33)127.7 (35.4)145.6 (38.1)120.4 (38.9)123.2 (36.4)
CRP (mg/L)4 (5.9)3.7 (4.1)5.6 (7.8)6.2 (9.8)7.1 (11.1)6.8 (9.3)9.6 (14.2)6.8 (7.3)
BMI (kg/m2)28.4 (5.3)28.4 (4.5)29.5 (6.4)30.3 (6.6)30.2 (5.6)29.6 (4.4)29.8 (6.5)29.3 (5.9)
Hypertension40.850.272.352.974.170.881.089.6
Diabetes12.912.338.514.720.050.043.639.6
Current smokers14.44.121.920.015.84.431.821.9
ACR (mg/g)3.3 [1.6–6.1]2.6 [1.5–5.3]64.0 [43.5–144.1]4.0 [2.1–7.2]3.8 [1.6–8.2]93.8
 [48.8–246.2]152.1
[62.9–447.0]220.8
 [74.7–818.2]
Creatinine (mg/dl)0.7 (0.2)1.1 (0.2)0.7 (0.2)0.8 (0.2)1.2 (0.2)1.1 (0.2)0.8 (0.2)1.9 (2.3)
Cystatin C (mg/L)0.8 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)0.8 (0.1)1.4 (0.5)1.3 (0.3)0.9 (0.1)1.2 (0.3)1.8 (1.2)
eGFRcreatinine (ml/min per 1.73 m2)87.3 (12.4)55.7 (3.8)89 (14.4)77.4 (11.7)50.3 (7.3)55.4 (3.3)75.9 (13.8)42.9 (14.9)
eGFRcystatin (ml/min per 1.73 m2)88.5 (13.3)73.8 (11.1)86.4 (14.4)48.0 (13.0)47.6 (9.3)70.2 (9.4)50.9 (9.2)38.6 (13.4)
  • All values expressed as mean (SD), percentages, or median [interquartile range]. eGFR, estimated GFR; CRP, C-reactive protein; BMI, body mass index; ACR, albumin/creatinine ratio.