Table 3.

Variables associated with withdrawal from dialysis for all patients and per age group

VariableHazard Ratio (95% CI)
All PatientsPatients Age < 75 yrPatients Age ≥ 75 yr
Demographic
 Age (10-yr increments)1.81 (1.75–1.88)1.80 (1.69–1.91)1.92 (1.72–1.15)
  Male versus female0.85 (0.79–0.92)0.89 (0.81–0.97)0.83 (0.75–0.93)
Race1.001.001.00
  White (reference)
  Black0.31 (0.22–0.44)0.29 (0.19–0.43)0.37 (0.24–0.56)
  Asian0.38 (0.28–0.51)0.42 (0.29–0.59)0.36 (0.25–0.51)
  Native Canadian0.76 (0.59–0.99)0.87 (0.63–1.20)0.58 (0.35–0.97)
 Weight1.001.001.00
  Normal (BMI > 18.5–24.9 kg/m2)
  Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2)1.37 (1.16–1.61)1.45 (1.12–1.86)1.30 (1.05–1.62)
  Overweight (BMI, 25–29.9 kg/m2)0.92 (0.83–1.02)0.90 (0.78–1.05)0.93 (0.82–1.06)
  Obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)0.93 (0.84–1.03)0.93 (0.81–1.07)093 (0.81–1.0)
 Urban versus rural dewller0.89 (0.80–1.00)0.97 (0.82–1.14)0.82 (0.73–0.93)
 Income quintile1.001.001.0
  1 (lowest) (reference)
   20.98 (0.88–1.101.00 (0.87–1.17)0.97 (0.84–1.12)
   30.90 (0.80–1.01)0.96 (0.81–1.14)0.84 (0.71–0.99)
   40.91 (0.80–1.04)0.92 (0.77–1.12)0.89 (0.75–1.06)
   50.94 (0.84–1.05)0.98 (0.84–1.14)0.91 (0.76–1.09)
 Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis1.09 (0.79,1.50)1.13 (0.71–1.80)1.01 (0.58–1.75)
 Home versus in-center hemodialysis0.78 (0.56–1.09)0.80 (0.48–1.33)0.75 (0.45–1.24)
 Community center versus hospital0.50 (0.26–0.94)0.52 (0.19–1.42)0.46 (0.20–1.06)
Laboratory values
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)1.00 (0.97–1.02)0.99 (0.96–1.02)1.01 (0.97–1.04)
 Albumin (g/L)0.86 (0.80–0.92)0.83 (0.74–0.92)0.90 (0.81–0.99)
Timing
 Early versus late initiationa1.17 (1.06–1.30)1.17(1.03,1.32)1.16 (1.03–1.32)
 Late versus early referralb1.27 (1.16–1.39)1.30 (1.15–1.47)1.23 (1.09–1.38)
 Era: dialysis initiation 2006–2009 versus 2001–20051.15 (1.02–1.30)1.18 (1.02,1.36)1.13 (0.97–1.31)
ESRD primary diagnosis
 GN (reference)1.01.01.0
 Diabetes1.58 (1.37–1.82)1.86 (1.50–2.32)1.31 (1.10–1.57)
 Renovascular1.26 (1.06–1.49)1.43 (1.12–1.82)1.07 (0.86–1.32)
 Other1.46 (1.23–1.72)1.68 (1.32–2.14)1.25 (1.00–1.57)
Comorbid conditions
 Coronary artery disease1.04 (0.96–1.12)1.04 (0.93–1.17)1.03 (0.94–1.13)
 Peripheral vascular disease1.19 (1.08–1.31)1.26 (1.11–1.42)1.13 (0.99–1.30)
 Diabetes1.15 (1.02–1.31)1.15 (0.94–1.40)1.15 (0.98–1.36)
 Hypertension0.75 (0.67–0.85)0.73 (0.64–0.84)0.78 (0.68–0.91)
 Congestive heart failure0.97 (0.87–1.08)1.01 (0.87–1.17)0.94 (0.81–1.08)
 Cerebrovascular disease1.30 (1.21–1.41)1.39(1.22,1.59)1.24(1.11,1.37)
 Lung disease1.04 (0.9–1.18)1.04 (0.88–1.23)1.04 (0.89–1.21)
 Malignancy1.62 (1.47–1.78)2.01 (1.75–2.30)1.35 (1.19–1.54)
Provinces (compared with Canada)
 Ontario1.15 (0.96–1.38)1.18 (0.96,1.46)1.11 (0.93–1.33)
 Alberta0.41 (0.19–0.86)0.39 (0.17–0.90)0.42 (0.21–0.86)
 British Columbia0.88 (0.74–1.05)0.86(0.67–1.09)0.91 (0.74–1.11)
 Manitoba1.21 (1.01–1.44)1.17 (1.00–1.37)1.28 (0.96–1.71)
 New Brunswick0.76 (0.61–0.94)0.72 (0.51–1.03)0.69 (0.52–0.92)
 Newfoundland1.19 (1.02–1.40)0.98 (0.61–1.56)1.44 (1.18–1.76)
 Nova Scotia1.67 (1.40–2.00)1.84 (1.54–2.20)1.53 (1.18–1.98)
 Quebec1.31 (1.05–1.62)1.45 (1.13–1.86)1.16 (0.92–1.46)
 Saskatchewan1.01 (0.96–1.38)0.96 (0.75–1.25)1.04 (0.71–1.51)
  • CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Early initiation defined as estimated GFR > 10.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; late initiation defined as estimated GFR ≤ 10.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • b Late referral defined as first seen by a nephrologist <90 days before initiation of dialysis.