Table 1.

Descriptive statistics at the 12-month follow-up visita of the 101 children in the cIMT substudy included in analyses and the remaining 366 children in the CKiD cohort

CharacteristiccIMT Substudy Cohortb
(n=101)CKiD Cohort without cIMT
(n=366)P Value
Age (yr)12.4 (8.5–15.3)11.7 (8.2–15.9)0.60
Male sex71 (70)211 (58)0.02
White race80 (79)243 (66)0.01
Height (m)1.48 (1.24–1.63)1.43 (1.23–1.60)0.15
Tanner stage II–V59 (58)176 (48)0.07
Birth weight ≥2500 g82 (81)297 (81)0.90
Duration of CKD (yr)8.9 (5.0, 12.4)7.1 (4.0–10.7)0.01
Nonglomerular CKD etiology86 (85)284 (78)0.10
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)42.9 (28.9–54.0)44.6 (33.7–58.2)0.07
BMI z score0.09 (−0.55 to 1.08)0.38 (−0.38 to 1.08)0.20
BMI ≥85th percentile26 (26)95 (26)0.90
Dyslipidemiac56 (55)159 (43)0.03
HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl28 (28)67 (18)0.04
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)45 (39–53)48 (41–57)0.06
Non-HDL cholesterol >160 mg/dl18 (18)56 (15)0.50
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)128 (109–151)125 (106–146)0.30
Triglycerides >130 mg/dl41 (41)117 (32)0.10
Triglycerides (mg/dl)119 (86–162)102 (73–141)0.01
Hypertensiond77 (76)274 (75)0.80
Systolic BP (mmHg)e109 (102–114)106 (99–112)0.02
Systolic BP indexf0.90 (0.84–0.94)0.88 (0.83–0.93)0.09
Diastolic BP (mmHg)e64 (58–69)66 (60–72)0.03
Diastolic BP indexf0.80 (0.74–0.87)0.84 (0.76–0.93)0.001
Taking antihypertensive medicationg71 (70)248 (68)0.60
Calciume, mg/dl9.7 (9.5–9.9)9.6 (9.4–9.9)0.70
Phosphoruse, mg/dl4.8 (4.2–5.1)4.6 (4.2–5.0)0.10
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). cIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; CKiD, Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study; BMI, body mass index.

  • a Used baseline data if data were missing at 12-month follow-up visit.

  • b Cincinnati Children’s Hospital and Medical Center (Cincinnati, OH; n=26), University of Texas (Houston, TX; n=26), British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, BC; n=24), Children’s Mercy Hospital (Kansas City, MO; n=19), and Nationwide Children’s Hospital (Columbus, OH; n=13).

  • c HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl, non-HDL cholesterol ≥160 mg/dl, or triglycerides ≥130 mg/dl.

  • d Defined as having an average systolic or diastolic BP from the baseline and 12-month follow-up visits ≥95th age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile, or if the participant reported hypertension at baseline or the 12-month follow-up visit, or if the participant reported using antihypertensive medication at baseline or at the 12-month follow-up visit.

  • e Average of values from baseline and 12-month follow-up.

  • f Measured systolic or diastolic BP/95th age-, sex-, and height-specific percentile BP; a value ≥1 is elevated. The average index from the baseline and 12-month follow-up is reported.

  • g Used antihypertensive medication at the baseline or 12-month follow-up visit.