Table 3.

Correlates of cIMT in 101 children of the CKiD cohort study

CharacteristicMean Difference in cIMT, mm (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjusted
Age (per 5-yr increase)0.003 (−0.02 to 0.02)−0.06 (−0.13 to 0.004)
Male sex (versus female)−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.02)−0.03 (−0.06 to 0.01)
Nonwhite race (versus white)−0.001 (−0.04 to 0.04)−0.002 (−0.04 to 0.04)
Height (per 0.1-m increase)0.002 (−0.004 to 0.01)0.03 (0.003–0.05)
Tanner stage II–V (versus stage I)0.000 (−0.03 to 0.03)−0.02 (−0.08 to 0.03)
Birth weight ≥2500 g (versus <2500 g)0.01 (−0.03 to 0.05)0.02 (−0.03 to 0.06)
Glomerular CKD etiology (versus nonglomerular)0.004 (−0.04 to 0.05)−0.02 (−0.07 to 0.03)
GFR (per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2 decrease)0.003 (−0.01 to 0.01)−0.002 (−0.01 to 0.01)
BMI z score−0.001 (−0.01 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.02 to 0.003)
Dyslipidemiaa0.04 (0.01–0.07)0.05 (0.01–0.08)
Hypertensionb0.03 (−0.003 to 0.07)0.04 (0.003–0.08)
Calcium (per 1-mg/dl increase)−0.004 (−0.03 to 0.02)−0.004 (−0.04 to 0.03)
Phosphorus (per 1-mg/dl increase)−0.01 (−0.03 to 0.01)−0.01 (−0.04 to 0.01)
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or n (%). cIMT, carotid intima-media thickness; CKiD, Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study; CI, confidence interval; BMI, body mass index.

  • a HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl, non-HDL cholesterol >160 mg/dl, or triglycerides >130 mg/dl.

  • b Average systolic or diastolic BP from the baseline and 12-month follow-up visits ≥95th age-, sex-, height-specific percentile, or if the participant reported hypertension at baseline or the 1-month follow-up visit, or if the participant reported using antihypertensive medication at baseline or at the 12-month follow-up visit.