Table 2.

Association of baseline factors with baseline coronary arterial calcification and progression of calcification by Agatston and calcium volume scores

VariableBaseline CACCAC Progression by Agatston ScoreCAC Progression by Calcium Volume Scorea
Coefficient ± SEP ValueCoefficient ± SE P ValueCoefficient ± SE P Value
Age0.04±0.020.066.20±5.740.280.12±0.060.06
Female sex−0.09±0.480.86−161.76±122.100.19−1.96±1.340.15
Black race−1.22±0.480.01164.15±131.650.222.58±1.440.08
Diabetes status1.83±0.47<0.00176.29±129.130.561.78±1.410.21
Smoking statusb2.04±0.50<0.001−75.36±140.620.59−2.44±1.540.12
Baseline CAC (log)56.33±29.150.060.67±0.320.04
Serum phosphate−0.38±0.190.05−97.90±55.420.08−0.62±0.610.31
FGF-23 (per 1-SD change)0.38±0.250.14192.30±69.970.0082.04±0.770.01
  • Model for baseline coronary arterial calcification (CAC) adjusted for age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes status, and serum phosphate. Models for CAC progression adjusted for log (baseline Agatston score), age, sex, race, smoking status, diabetes status, and serum phosphate. FGF-23, fibroblast growth factor 23.

  • a CAC progression defined as the difference in the square root-transformed CAC score between scans.

  • b Defined as current or prior smoking versus never smoking.