Table 3.

Rates of secondary outcomes (per 1000 dialysis sessions) for standard and buttonhole needling

OutcomesStandard Needling Rate per 1000 Dialysis SessionsButtonhole Needling Rate per 1000 Dialysis SessionsP Value
Hematoma formation4362950.003
Bleeding postdialysis
 No bleeding23.628.3
 Any bleeding97.697.20.40
Signs of localized infection22.450.00.003
  • Signs of localized infection included erythema, pus, or swelling at the fistula site.