Table 1.

Characteristics of patients randomized to buttonhole or standard needling groups

CharacteristicStandard Needling (n=70)Buttonhole Needling (n=70)
Mean age (SD) in years66.7 (14.4)70.3 (12.3)
Male sex (n; %)46 (65.7)51 (72.9)
Comorbid illnesses (n; %)
 Diabetes mellitus39 (55.7)33 (47.1)
 Coronary artery disease28 (40.0)31 (44.3)
Years on hemodialysis (median)3.0 (1.6–5.4)2.8 (1.6–5.6)
Coumadin (n; %)9 (12.9)5 (7.1)
Mean international normalized ratio (SD)2.2 (0.3)2.4 (0.4)
Type of arteriovenous fistula (n; %)
 Radiocephalic13 (18.6)11 (15.7)
 Brachiocephalic32 (45.7)43 (61.4)
 Brachial basilic24 (34.3)16 (22.9)
 Other1 (1.4)0
Previous fistulogram/fistuloplasty (n; %)48 (68.6)43 (61.4)
Anesthesia used (n; %)20 (28.6)17 (24.3)
Type of anesthesia if used
 Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics topical9 (45.0)13 (76.5)
 Lidocaine topical9 (45.0)2 (11.8)
 Intradermal lidocaine2 (10.0)2 (11.8)
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (25th to 75th percentile), or number (percentage).