Table 2.

Hazard ratios (HRs) for 2-year mortality on dialysis (n=22)

Univariable ModelMultivariable Model
Hazard RatioaPAdjusted for ConfoundersbHazard RatioaP
Primary determinants Macroeconomic
  GDP per capita ppp (per 1000 USD)1.021 (1.007–1.034)0.007Health expenditure percent GDP responsiveness index1.023 (1.002–1.045)0.05
  Healthcare expenditure as percentage of GDP (per 1%)1.129 (1.069–1.192)0.001HDI1.103 (1.035–1.175)0.007
GDP per capita
Secondary determinants
 Renal service organization
  Private for profit share of HD facilities (per 1%)0.997 (0.992–1.003)0.35NoneNA
  HD facility reimbursement rate as proportion of GDP per capita (per year, per 1.0)0.973 (0.762–1.243)0.83NoneNA
  Prevalent dialysis patients per nephrologist (per 10)0.996 (0.959–1.034)0.83NoneNA
 Incidence of dialysis
  Incidence of dialysis (per 10 pmp)1.023 (1.002–1.045)0.04Health expenditure percent GDP responsiveness index0.976 (0.943–1.011)0.19
  Percentage diabetes as primary renal disease (per 1%)1.002 (0.987–1.017)0.83Responsiveness index incidence of dialysis0.985 (0.967–1.002)0.10
  Intrinsic age- and sex-related mortality risk of incident dialysis population (per 1 death/10,000 person years)1.038 (1.009–1.069)0.02NoneNA
  • GDP, gross domestic product; ppp, purchasing power parity; HD, hemodialysis; NA, not applicable (because there were no variables qualifying as confounders; univariable relationships were, therefore, considered as independent); pmp, per million population.

  • a Because a log–log transformation was performed on the mortality probabilities, the exponent of the coefficients can be interpreted as hazard ratios.

  • b The variables listed comprise all of the confounders included in the model.