Table 4.

Odds ratios for major complications (blood transfusion, surgery, and/or arterial embolization)

N TotalN (%) with Major ComplicationsUnadjusted AnalysesAdjusted Analysesa
Odds Ratio (CI)P ValueOdds Ratio (CI)P Value
Age (years)
 <187152 (0.3)0.40 (0.10–1.70)0.46 (0.06–3.40)
 18–59560939 (0.7)1.00 (ref)<0.0011.00 (ref)0.34
  ≥60296447 (1.6)2.30 (1.50–3.50)1.20 (0.80–2.00)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
  ≥6033074 (0.1)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 30–59230714 (0.6)5.00 (1.70–15.00)<0.0014.90 (1.60–14.00)<0.001
 <30330966 (2.0)16.80 (6.10–46.00)15.50 (5.60–43.00)
Systolic BP
 <140414127 (0.7)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 140–159247624 (1.0)1.50 (0.86–2.60)0.0011.10 (0.61–1.90)0.29
 ≥160212732 (1.5)2.30 (1.40–3.90)1.30 (0.77–2.30)
Proteinuria (g/d)
 0.3–0.99243518 (0.7)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 1–2.99193323 (1.2)1.60 (0.87–3.00)0.281.60 (0.84–3.00)0.14
 ≥3.0315433 (1.0)1.40 (0.80–2.50)1.60 (0.89–2.90)
Acute renal failure
 Yes172330 (1.7)2.29 (1.50–3.60)<0.0011.10 (0.69–1.80)0.48
 No757658 (0.8)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
 Yes3143 (1.0)1.00 (0.31–3.20)0.991.70 (0.54–5.50)0.41
 No897485 (1.0)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Amyloidosis
 Yes2553 (1.2)1.21 (0.38–3.90)0.750.92 (0.28–3.00)0.88
 No625661 (1.0)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
Needle size (gauge)
 148585 (0.6)0.63 (0.25–1.60)0.79 (0.31–2.00)
 16214625 (1.2)1.30 (0.78–2.10)0.551.40 (0.85–2.30)0.92
 18499846 (0.9)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Unknown7446 (0.8)0.88 (0.37–2.10)0.93 (0.39–2.20)
Number of needle passes
 16986 (0.9)1.60 (0.40–6.40)1.80 (0.44–7.10)
 25573 (0.5)1.00 (ref)0.181.00 (ref)0.35
 31584 (2.5)4.80 (1.10–22.00)4.00 (0.87–18.00)
 ≥4561 (1.8)3.40 (0.34–33.00)2.80 (0.28–28.00)
Specialty
 Nephrologist297522 (0.7)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 Radiologist476650 (1.0)1.40 (0.86–2.40)0.171.10 (0.65–1.80)0.66
 Both116330 (2.6)1.50 (0.76–3.00)1.20 (0.58–2.30)
Center size (biopsies in study period)
 ≥650487332 (0.7)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
 <650441556 (1.3)1.90 (1.30–3.00)0.0031.60 (1.02–2.50)0.04
  • CI, confidence interval; eGFR, estimated GFR.

  • a Corrected for categories of age and eGFR. Age is only corrected for eGFR, and eGFR is only corrected for age.