Table 2.

Whole-urine biomarker protein concentrations

BiomarkerTotal Controls (n=20)Total Controls (n=20)Case-Patients (n=27)
Non-Normal (n=14)Normal (n=6)
Hydronephrosis (n=2)Hypertension (n=2)Congenital Anomaly (n=7)Dysfunctional Voiding (n=3)
AQP24.5a (3.4–5.7)4.5a (4.5–4.6)3.5a (0.3–6.4)2.9 (0.5–2.9)4.5a (1.1–8.2)3.7a (0.3–8.2)0.3 (0.2–8.5)
VATPase3.1 (1.9–4.2)10.4 (7.8–13.0)13.7 (2.1–35.2)42.8a (31.7–64.2)8.8 (3.0–43.9)8.8 (1.9–64.2)13.0 (1.3–49.4)
TGFβ4.5 (1.3–7.6)3.1 (2.2–4.0)1.6 (1.0–6.9)6.5 (2.40–7.1)1.7a (1.1–5.0)2.2a (1.0–7.6)4.1 (0.6–14.7)
N-cadherin9.3a (8.9–9.8)26.3 (9.9–42.8)3.1 (0.5–18.1)3.3 (1.8–27.5)5.9 (0.4–13.8)8.0 (0.3–42.8)2.8 (0.5–17.0)
TRPV42.5 (1.7–3.4)1.9 (0.7–3.2)3.3 (0.9–7.7)1.9 (1.6–3.2)3.0 (1.2–5.2)2.1 (0.7–7.7)2.0 (0.5–10.7)
L1CAM5.9 (4.3–7.5)2.9 (0.8–5.0)5.7 (2.1–10.7)1.9 (1.7–8.5)2.1a (1.8–3.9)4.1 (0.8–10.7)4.1 (0.9–11.8)
Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio5.5a (5.1–8.1)5.7a (3.9–7.5)7.4a (2.4–39.4)12.9 (5.4–42.9)6.6a (3.6–22)7.2a (2.4–42.9)44.8 (5.2–361)
  • Values represent the median with the range in parentheses. AQP2, aquaporin-2; VATPase, vacuolar-type H+-adenosine triphosphatase; TRPV4, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4; L1CAM, L1 cell adhesion molecule.

  • a Significantly different than in case-patients.