Table 3.

Exosome biomarker protein concentrations

BiomarkerTotal Controls (n=20)Total Controls (n=20)Case-Patients (n=27)
Non-Normal (n=14)Normal (n=6)
Hydronephrosis (n=2)Hypertension (n=2)Congenital Anomaly (n=7)Dysfunctional Voiding (n=3)
E-cadherin1.1a (0.7–1.5)3.8a (2.7–4.8)1.4a (0.3–8.4)0.5 (0.2–1.1)2.7a (0.7–4.4)1.4a (0.2–8.4)0.2 (0–1.2)
B-catenin0.9 (0.6–1.3)1.0 (0.4–1.7)1.0 (0.6–2.2)0.9 (0.8–1.3)1.2 (0.3–4.9)0.9 (0.4–4.9)2.1 (0–9.7)
AQP23.4 (0.7–6.1)5.9 (0.6–11.2)6.4 (0.7–12.6)3.6 (1.1–31.4)3.8 (1.5–31.4)4.3 (0.6–83.5)2.7 (1.1–21.9)
VATPase3.0 (1.6–4.5)2.1 (1.0–3.3)4.1 (0–20.1)8.3 (6.3–16.5)4.6 (2.7–10.1)4.3 (0–20.1)4.1 (0.4–25.3)
TGFβ2.2 (1.3–3.0)4.5 (0.5–8.4)2.1 (0.6–9.3)0.7 (0.4–4.6)1.5a (0.4–3.8)1.8a (0.4–14.2)4.5 (1.1–22.6)
N-cadherin5.8a (5.0–6.5)5.9a (3.9–7.9)4.9a (1.6–14.7)1.4 (0.8–6.0)6.4a (1.8–11.3)5.4a (0.8–14.7)0.9 (0–4.6)
L1CAM1.7 (0.3–3.1)1.5 (0–3.0)0.5 (0–3.5)0.4a (0.2–0.6)0.1a (0–1.9)0.3a (0–3.5)2.7 (1–16.8)
TRPV40.6 (0.2–1.0)0.4 (0–0.8)1.1a (0–3.9)2.1a (1.2–2.3)2.3 (1.0–5.7)1.3a (0–5.7)3.2 (0.7–12.9)
  • Values represent the median with the range in parentheses. AQP2, aquaporin-2; VATPase, vacuolar-type H+-adenosine triphosphatase; L1CAM, L1 cell adhesion molecule; TRPV4, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4.

  • a Significantly different than in case-patients.