Table 3.

Association between serum β-trace protein tertiles and mortality in 503 incident hemodialysis participants of the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD Study

OverallSerum β-Trace Protein Tertiles (mg/L)P for Linear Trend
Lowest Tertile 
(1.8–6.1)Middle Tertile 
(6.1–8.8)Highest Tertile 
(8.8–21.1)
All-cause mortality
 events
  number of deaths/participants321/503103/168100/168118/167
  unadjusted incidence rate per 1000 person-years (95% CI)177 (159–198)155 (128–189)166 (136–202)216 (180–258)0.03
 risk of death HR (95% CI)a
  unadjustedReferent1.04 (0.77–1.40)1.45 (1.09–1.92)0.009
  adjusted
demographicbReferent0.89 (0.65–1.21)1.39 (1.04–1.86)0.01
 plus clinical factorscReferent0.95 (0.69–1.32)1.72 (1.25–2.37)<0.001
CVD mortality
 events
  number of deaths/participants159/50352/16849/16858/167
  unadjusted incidence rate per 1000 person-years (95% CI)88 (75–102)78 (60–103)81 (61–108)106 (82–136)0.03
 risk of death HR (95% CI)a
  unadjustedReferent0.95 (0.62–1.45)1.41 (0.94–2.10)0.08
  adjusted
demographicbReferent0.73 (0.47–1.14)1.31 (0.87–1.98)0.13
plus clinical factorscReferent0.77 (0.47–1.24)1.63 (1.03–2.58)0.02
  • CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; CVD, cardiovascular disease.

  • a Cox proportional hazards regression.

  • b Demographic characteristics: age, race (white or other), sex, educational status (completed high school or not), marital status (married or not), and employment status (employed or not employed).

  • c Clinical and treatment factors in addition to demographic characteristics: smoking history (ever smoked), pulse pressure, body mass index, primary cause of kidney failure (diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, or other), Index of Coexistent Disease score (zero to three), CVD, congestive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes, and serum albumin.