Table 2.

Association between serum β-trace protein and mortality in 503 incident hemodialysis participants of the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD Study

All-Cause MortalityCVD Mortality
Estimate (95% CI)P ValueEstimate (95% CI)P Value
 number of deaths/participants321/503159/503
 unadjusted incidence rate per 1000 person-years (95% CI)177 (159–198)88 (75–102)
Risk of deatha [HR (95% CI)]
 unadjusted1.21 (0.99–1.45)0.061.11 (0.84–1.47)0.45
  demographicb1.19 (0.97–1.47)0.091.08 (0.80–1.45)0.63
  plus clinical factorsc1.36 (1.09–1.69)0.0071.20 (0.86–1.66)0.29
  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Cox proportional hazards regression. Serum β-trace protein (BTP) is modeled as a natural log of BTP. HR presented represents hazard for each doubling of serum BTP.

  • b Demographic characteristics: age, race (white or other), sex, educational status (completed high school or not), marital status (married or not), and employment status (employed or not employed).

  • c Clinical and treatment factors in addition to demographic characteristics: smoking history (ever smoked), pulse pressure, body mass index, primary cause of kidney failure (diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, or other), Index of Coexistent Disease score (zero to three), CVD, congestive heart failure, left ventricular hypertrophy, diabetes, and serum albumin.