Table 2.

Changes in endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation, endothelial-independent brachial artery vasodilation, endothelial progenitor cells and pulse wave velocity among 25 participants with intradialytic hypertension before and after 8 weeks on maximally tolerated dose of carvedilol

Baseline (n=25)Study End (n=25)Change from Baseline to Study EndP Value
Endothelial-dependent FMD (%)a1.03 (±0.70)1.40 (±0.84)0.47 (±0.93)0.02
Endothelial-independent nitroglycerin-mediated vasodilation (%)6.65 (±4.59)7.30 (±6.80)0.71 (±5.0)0.5
Endothelial progenitor cell markers
 ALDHbr (% of mononuclear cells)0.034 (0.017, 0.080)0.027 (0.013, 0.048)−0.004 (−0.03, 0.014)0.4
 CD34+CD133+ (% of mononuclear cells)0.033 (0.016, 0.051)0.029 (0.019, 0.049)−0.001 (−0.028, 0.012)0.9
PWV (m/s)11.8 (±3.1)11.6 (±3.2)−0.45 (±2.04)0.3
ET-1 (pg/ml)
 prehemodialysis4.97 (±2.01)5.57 (±2.25)0.20 (±1.81)0.6
 posthemodialysis5.98 (±2.94)5.64 (±2.91)−0.80 (±2.78)0.2
 Δ hemodialysis (posthemodialysis–prehemodialysis)1.01 (±2.32)a0.07 (±2.02)b−1.00 (±3.74)0.1
ADMA (µmol/L)0.68 (±0.18)0.65 (±0.17)−0.04 (±0.14)0.2
  • Values are reported as mean ± SD or median and 25th to 75th interquartile range. Vasodilation units are the percentage of dilation and endothelial progenitor cells are the percentage of mononuclear cells. P values determined from paired t tests or nonparametric signed rank test. FMD was normalized for peak shear rate and calculated as follows: (FMD/peak shear rate) × 100 (20). Two PWV measurements were unable to be performed for technical reasons, two patients had inadequate samples for ET-1, and four patients had inadequate samples for ADMA. FMD, flow-mediated vasodilation; PWV, pulse wave velocity; ALDHbr, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity; ET-1, endothelin-1; ADMA, asymmetric dimethylarginine.

  • a P=0.03 for change in ET-1 from prehemodialysis to posthemodialysis at baseline.

  • b P=0.9 for change in ET-1 from prehemodialysis to posthemodialysis at study end.