Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of patients with and without statin use

CharacteristicPrehospital Statin Usea (n=413)No Prehospital Statin Useb (n=1423)P ValueContinued Statin Usec (n=344)No Continued Statin Used (n=1492)P Value
Demographic
 mean age (yr)72.4±11 66.8±17.8<0.00172.8±10.666.9±17.6<0.001
 male gender227 (54.9)727 (51.1)0.16192 (55.8)762 (51)0.11
 race
  white368 (89.1)1125 (79)<0.001315 (91.5)1178 (78.9)<0.001
  black36 (8.7)242 (17)22 (6.4)256 (17.1)
  other9 (2.1)56 (3.9)7 (2)58 (3.8)
 admitted from nursing home12 (2.91)103 (7.24)0.0018 (2.33)107 (7.1)0.001
 Charlson Comorbidity Indexe
  mean score2.16±2.01.78±2.2<0.0012.2±2.01.7±2.2<0.001
  patients with score > 0344 (83.2)978 (68.7)<0.001293 (85.1)1029 (68.9)<0.001
 CKD9 (2.1)24 (1.6)0.506 (1.74)27 (1.81)0.93
 cardiovascular disease189 (54.1)278 (21.9)<0.001166 (57)301 (22.6)<0.001
 chronic respiratory disease158 (38.2)545 (38.3)0.98137 (39.8)566 (37.9)0.51
 diabetes125 (30.2)236 (16.5)<0.001105 (30.5)256 (17.1)<0.001
 cirrhosis04 (0.8)0.2904 (0.2)0.73
 mean baseline creatinine level (mg/dl)0.91±0.10.89±0.20.050.90±0.10.89±0.20.08
Healthy user indicators
 health insurance410 (99.2)1344 (94.4)<0.001343 (99.7)1411 (94.5)<0.001
 lives at home383 (92.7)1249 (87.7)0.005322 (93.6)1310 (87.8)0.002
 ambulating independently279 (67.5)872 (61.2)0.02238 (69.1)913 (61.1)0.006
 previous smoker204 (49.3)577 (40.5)0.001179 (52)602 (40.3)<0.001
 current smoker68 (16.4)374 (26.2)<0.00151 (14.8)391 (26.2)<0.001
 pneumococcal vaccine209 (50.6)496 (34.8)<0.001179 (52)526 (35.2)<0.001
 influenza vaccine in the prior 8 months207 (50.1)523 (36.7)<0.001176 (51.1)554 (37.1)<0.001
 long-term aspirin use223 (54)406 (28.5)<0.001192 (55.8)437 (29.2)<0.001
 long-term anticoagulant use103 (24.9)194 (13.6)<0.00187 (25.2)210 (14)<0.001
Severity of illness on day 1
 mean Pneumonia Severity Index scoref93.4±25.786.2±33.6<0.00193.2±25.186.6±33.5<0.001
 mean Pneumonia Severity Index score without age38.8±27.336.4±30.80.00738.5±2736.6±30.70.02
 Pneumonia Severity Index class
  I or II53 (12.8)353 (24.8)<0.00140 (11.6)366 (24.5)<0.001
  III72 (17.4)310 (21.7)62 (18)320 (21.4)
  IV201 (48.6)485 (34)173 (50.2)513 (34.3)
  V87 (21)275 (19.3)69 (20)293 (19.6)
 mean APACHE III scoreg40.3±12.340.2±14.30.5940.1±12.140.3±14.30.83
 mean SOFA scoreh2.3±1.82.3±1.90.372.3±1.82.3±1.90.57
 severe sepsisi54 (13)213 (14.9)0.33105 (30.5)467 (31.3)0.77
Treatments administered
 antibiotic use in the last week66 (15.9)257 (18)0.3359 (17.1)264 (17.6)0.60
 received antibiotics according to ATS guidelines338 (81.8)1128 (79.2)0.25281 (81.6)1185 (79.4)0.34
Hospital characteristics
 admitted to teaching hospital207 (50.1)770 (54.1)0.15171 (49.7)806 (54)0.14
 bed group
  <1008 (1.9)28 (1.9)0.228 (2.3)28 (1.8)0.37
  100–249158 (38.2)620 (43.5)132 (38.3)646 (43.3)
  250–499173 (41.8)562 (39.4)144 (41.8)591 (39.6)
  ≥50074 (17.9)213 (14.9)60 (17.4)227 (15.2)
  • Values expressed with a plus/minus sign are the mean ± SD. Unless otherwise noted, other values are number (percentage) of patients. APACHE, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation; SOFA, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment; ATS, American Thoracic Society.

  • a Patients who were taking a statin medication as an outpatient in the 7 days before hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

  • b Patients who were not taking a statin medication as an outpatient in the 7 days before CAP hospitalization.

  • c Patients who were taking a statin medication as an outpatient in the 7 days before hospitalization for CAP and in whom statins were continued during hospital stay.

  • d Patients who were not taking a statin medication as an outpatient in the 7 days before CAP hospitalization or patients in whom statin medications were never continued during hospital stay.

  • e According to the method of Charlson et al. (21).

  • f Measured according to criteria by Fine et al. (20) in the emergency department in 1546 (84.2%) patients. There were no significant differences between patients who did and did not have a Pneumonia Severity Index measured.

  • g Assessed on first hospital day regardless of whether patient was admitted to an intensive care unit (22).

  • h Assessed on the first day of hospital admission according to the method of Vincent et al. (24).

  • i Defined as sepsis plus acute organ dysfunction according to 2001 international consensus criteria for severe sepsis (23).