Table 4.

Adjusted time-varying effects of longitudinal changes in mental health on all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and cardiac hospitalization in a joint model

Mean Survival EstimatePercent Change in Mean SurvivalP Value
All-cause mortality−0.06 (−0.10, −0.03)−5.8<0.001
Cause-specific mortality
 cardiac death−0.04 (−0.09, 0.01)−3.90.11
  IHD death−0.04 (−0.10, 0.01)−4.40.13
  HF death−0.01 (−0.16, 0.13)−1.40.85
  arrhythmic death0.02 (−0.12, 0.15)1.60.81
  death from other heart diseases−0.03 (−0.17, 0.10)−3.20.64
 infectious death−0.05 (−0.11, 0.001)−5.10.06
First cardiac hospitalization−0.08 (−0.13, −0.02)−7.60.01
First cardiac hospitalization or cardiac death−0.04 (−0.07, −0.02)−4.1<0.001
  • Adjusted for age, sex, race, currently working, less than a high school education, married, currently smoking, time on dialysis, flux group, index of coexistent disease score, history of coronary artery disease, serum albumin, bicarbonate, β-blocker use, and sleep medication use. IHD, ischemic heart disease; HF, heart failure.