Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of women undergoing hemodialysis according to presence of sexual dysfunction

CharacteristicOverall* (n=659)No Sexual Dysfunction (n=104 [15.8%])Sexual Dysfunction (n=555 [84.2%])P Value
Age (yr)58.8±15.344.6±12.161.5±14.3<0.001
Highest school education, n (%)<0.001
 ≤5 yr304 (48.5)31 (10.1)273 (89.8)
 5–8 yr233 (37.2)40 (17.2)193 (82.8)
 >8 yr90 (14.4)27 (30.0)63 (70.0)
Depression score (CES-D scale)20.7±11.315.2±10.021.8±11.3<0.001
Location of dialysis clinic, n (%)
 Europe453 (68.7)56 (12.4)397 (87.6)<0.001
 South America206 (31.3)48 (23.3)158 (76.6)
Partner status, n (%)<0.001
 living without partner297 (45.1)24 (8.1)273 (91.9)
 living partner362 (54.9)80 (22.1)282 (77.9)
Waiting list for kidney transplant, n (%)104 (15.8)40 (38.5)64 (61.5)<0.001
Occupational status, n (%)<0.001
 employed60 (9.3)26 (43.3)34 (56.7)
 unemployed131 (20.3)36 (27.5)95 (72.5)
 receiving pension453 (70.3)41 (9.1)412 (90.9)
Previously had children, n (%)504 (84.1)76 (15.1)428 (84.9)0.02
Menopausal, n (%)410 (62.2)37 (9.0)373 (91.0)<0.001
Comorbid conditions, n (%)
 diabetes mellitus144 (22.6)15 (10.4)129 (89.6)<0.04
 hypertension402 (67.0)55 (13.7)347 (86.3)0.07
 prior cardiovascular eventa49 (7.4)3 (6.1)46 (93.9)0.06
 kidney transplant49 (7.0)15 (30.6)31 (63.3)0.002
Primary renal disease, n (%)<0.001
 diabetic nephropathy110 (17.0)8 (7.3)102 (92.7)
 hypertensive nephrosclerosis137 (21.2)6 (4.4)131 (95.6)
 other399 (61.8)89 (22.3)310 (77.7)
Smoking history, n (%)0.90
 current smoker74 (11.3)13 (17.6)61 (82.4)
 former smoker77 (11.8)12 (15.6)65 (84.4)
 never smoked503 (76.9)77 (15.3)426 (84.7)
Clinical characteristics
 interdialytic weight gain (kg)2.0±0.92.2± 1.02.0± 0.90.01
 median time on dialysis (mo)40.0 (17.0–77.7)48.2 (22.9–99.5)37.4 (16.5–74.3)0.01
 duration of dialysis (min/session)233.5±23.9234.8±18.2233.2±24.80.50
 single pool (Kt/V)1.6± 0.31.7±0.31.6±0.30.001
 body mass index (kg/m2)25.3±5.323.7±5.425.5±5.30.001
 systolic BP (mmHg)130.2±19.2129.7±18.9130.3±19.30.50
 diastolic BP (mmHg)73.4±9.475.1±9.973.1±9.20.08
 hemoglobin (g/L)10.9±1.310.9±1.410.9±1.30.80
 median serum ferritin (µg/L)454.5 (276.0–686.0)463.0 (277.0–769.0)454.0 (276.0–680.0)0.60
 serum albumin (g/L)3.9±0.43.9±0.43.9±0.40.60
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)100.2±37.891.2±30.9103.0±39.30.08
Medication, n (%)
  β-blocker257 (39.0)35 (13.6)222 (86.4)0.20
 ACE inhibitor217 (32.9)34 (15.7)183 (84.3)0.90
 angiotensin-receptor blocker89 (13.5)15 (16.9)74 (83.1)0.80
 diuretic119 (18.1)7 (5.6)112 (94.1)0.001
 erythropoietin601 (92.6)97 (16.1)504 (83.9)0.30
 nitrate102 (15.5)2 (2.0)100 (98.0)<0.001
 lipid-lowering therapy193 (29.3)25 (13.0)168 (87.0)0.20
 antidepressant42 (6.4)3 (7.1)39 (92.9)0.10
 antipsychotic14 (2.1)1 (7.1)13 (92.9)0.40
 anxiolytic153 (23.2)18 (11.8)135 (88.2)0.10
  • Data expressed with a plus/minus sign are mean ± SD. Medians are expressed with interquartile ranges. Numbers may not sum to group totals or percentages may not total 100% where data for the variable are missing. ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression.

  • a Prior cardiovascular event included myocardial infarction, stroke or transient ischemic attack, or coronary or other revascularization surgery as assessed by the treating physician.