Table 2.

Association of dialysis treatment practices (treatment time, single pool Kt/V, ultrafiltration volume) with mortality

Patient LevelInstrumental Variable Approach
HR95% CIPHR95% CIP
Treatment time <210 min (versus ≥210 min)
 all-cause mortality1.06(1.00–1.13)0.041.09(0.94–1.27)0.26
 sudden death1.13(1.00–1.27)0.041.38(1.04–1.83)0.03
 other cardiovascular death1.00(0.89–1.12)0.960.77(0.58–1.03)0.08
 noncardiovascular death1.06(0.97–1.17)0.201.16(0.93–1.44)0.18
Kt/V <1.2 (versus ≥1.2)
 all-cause mortality1.06(1.00–1.12)0.071.39(1.07–1.81)0.01
 sudden death1.10(0.97–1.24)0.151.71(1.02–2.87)0.04
 other cardiovascular death0.96(0.85–1.08)0.480.95(0.60–1.50)0.83
 noncardiovascular death1.10(1.00–1.21)0.041.59(1.11–2.29)0.01
Ultrafiltration volume >5.7% of postweight (versus ≤5.7%)
 all-cause mortality1.09(1.01–1.19)0.031.32(0.84–2.08)0.23
 sudden death1.15(1.00–1.32)0.041.56(0.60–4.03)0.35
 other cardiovascular death1.17(1.01–1.36)0.042.36(1.02–5.46)0.05
 noncardiovascular death1.00(0.88–1.14)0.980.78(0.43–1.43)0.42
  • N=37,741. HRs and CIs adjusted for variables listed in Table 1 and in the Materials and Methods, stratified by phase and country, and accounted for facility clustering. IV, instrumental variable; HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.