Table 2.

Prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) for medication use associated with level of estimated GFR in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease

Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
≥60 (n=5545)45–59 (n=837)<45 (n=531)
Antiplatelet agent
 unadjusted1.00 (ref)1.08 (1.00–1.15)1.05 (0.98–1.12)
 multivariable-adjusteda1.00 (ref)1.04 (0.98–1.10)1.02 (0.95–1.10)
ACEI/ARB
 unadjusted1.00 (ref)1.23 (1.16–1.31)1.34 (1.25–1.44)
 multivariable-adjusteda1.00 (ref)1.12 (1.05–1.20)1.14 (1.06–1.23)
β-Blocker
 unadjusted1.00 (ref)1.32 (1.23–1.42)1.33 (1.22–1.46)
 multivariable-adjusteda1.00 (ref)1.23 (1.14–1.33)1.20 (1.09–1.32)
Statin
 unadjusted1.00 (ref)1.11 (1.04–1.18)1.15 (1.07–1.24)
 multivariable-adjusteda1.00 (ref)1.07 (1.00–1.14)1.10 (1.01–1.19)
All four medication classes
 unadjusted1.00 (ref)1.32 (1.11–1.56)1.43 (1.18–1.75)
 multivariable-adjusteda1.00 (ref)1.22 (1.02–1.46)1.26 (1.02–1.56)
  • Cardiovascular disease is defined as prior myocardial infarction (by electrocardiogram or self-report), coronary revascularization (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery), stroke, aortic aneurysm repair, lower extremity bypass surgery, or carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty. ACEI, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • a Multivariable models include adjustment for age, sex, race, region of residence, marital status, education, income, current smoking, depression, cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and albuminuria.