Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the study population

CharacteristicControls (n=41)ESRD (n=41)
Men, n (%)41 (100)26 (63)
Median BMI (range) (kg/m2)29 (22–40)26 (17–42)
Median age (range) (yr)57 (54–60)67 (30–82)
Cardiovascular history, n (%)
 myocardial infarction0 (0)5 (12)
 PTCA0 (0)6 (15)
 CABG0 (0)2 (5)
 pacemaker0 (0)0 (0)
 defibrillator0 (0)1 (2)
 hypertension10 (24)20 (49)
 diabetes0 (0)7 (17)
 hypercholesterolemia9 (22)13 (32)
 tobacco5 (12)9 (22)
 family history of CAD13 (32)
Renal failure, n (%)0 (0)41 (100)
Hemodialysis, n (%)0 (0)41 (100)
Median hemodialysis duration (range) (yr)5 (0.5–24)
Medication, n (%)
 aspirin0 (0)19 (46)
 clopidogrel0 (0)5 (12)
 β-blocker0 (0)21 (51)
 calcium antagonists0 (0)7 (17)
 nitrates0 (0)2 (5)
 ACE inhibitors0 (0)3 (7)
 ARBs0 (0)1 (2)
 statins0 (0)18 (44)
 fibrates0 (0)1 (2)
 warfarin0 (0)7 (17)
 furosemide0 (0)6 (15)
 amiodarone0 (0)3 (7)
  • BMI, body mass index; PTCA, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers.