Table 1.

Summary of reported incidence of nephrotic syndrome–associated thromboembolism

Publication YearAuthorNTE%TEStudy TypeNotes
Childhood
 1973Egli et al. (15)3377601.8RetrospectiveProbably only symptomatic TE
 1984Mahan et al. (23)4149.8RetrospectiveOnly congenital nephrotic syndrome
 1986Hoyer et al. (17)26726.9*RetrospectiveV·Q evidence of PE
 1987Mehls et al. (24)20494.4RetrospectivePrimarily only symptomatic TE
 1991Tsau et al. (25)19321RetrospectiveOnly symptomatic TE reported
 1997Schlegel (8)360113.0Not statedPrimarily only symptomatic TE
 2000Citak et al.l (14)4924.1ProspectiveOnly symptomatic TE reported
 2000Lilova et al. (19)44792.0RetrospectiveOnly symptomatic TE reported
 2001Hamed et al. (16)30413.0RetrospectiveOnly congenital nephrotic syndrome
 2009Kerlin et al. (2)326309.2RetrospectiveOnly symptomatic TE reported; included secondary causes of NS
 TOTAL50531412.8
Adult
 1975Bennet et al. (11)21628.6ProspectiveNo histology data
 1980Llach et al. (22)1513321.9Prospective
 1980Andrassy et al. (10)842934.5ProspectiveRVT, DVT, and PE studied
 1981Chugh et al. (13)441125.0Retrospective
 1981Kuhlmann et al. (18)17423.5ProspectiveRVT, DVT, and PE studied
 1983Wagoner et al.l (27)271451.9ProspectiveMembranous nephropathy only
 1988Velasquez et al. (26)261142.3Prospective
 2000Cherng et al. (12)892932.6ProspectiveV·Q evidence of PE
 2008Wysokinski et al. (28)2184420.2RetrospectiveRVT and DVT
 TOTAL67718126.7
  • TE, thromboembolism; PE, pulmonary embolism; RVT, renal vein thrombosis; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; V·Q, ventilation:perfusion mismatch scanning; NS, nephrotic syndrome.