Table 1.

Characteristics of interventions and populations at baseline and primary outcome in included RCTs

Author (Reference)Baseline Kidney DiseaseDrugsBaseline CharacteristicsFollow-Up Primary OutcomeNo. of Participants (Intervention/
Control)Sum of Jadad ScoreITTLocation Concealment
Treatment Group (Paricalcitol)Control Group
Moe et al. (20)CKD stage 5 HD patientsIntravenously at doses 4 μg; 3 times weeklyPlaceboiPTH level <200 pg/ml; age >18 yr12 wkAssessments of immune function16/153NoUnknown
Martin et al. (21)CKD stage 5 HD patientsIntravenously at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.24 μg/kg; 3 times weeklyPlaceboiPTH levels >400 pg/ml; serum calcium between 8.0 and 10.0 mg/dl; age 22–90 yr 12 wkA decrease in iPTH of at least 30%40/383NoUnknown
Llach et al. (22)CKD stage 5 HD patientsIntravenously at doses ranging from 0.04 to 0.24 μg/kg; 3 times weeklyPlaceboiPTH level >300 pg/ml; age >18 yr4 wkA 30% reduction from maximum baseline in iPTH22/133NoUnknown
Greenbaum et al. (23)CKD stage 5 HD patientsIntravenously at doses of 0.04 μg/kg if iPTH level >500 pg/ml; 0.08 g/kg if iPTH level >500 pg/mlPlaceboiPTH level ≥300 pg/ml; age >18 yr12 wk2 consecutive 30% decreases from baseline in iPTH levels15/144YesUnknown
Ross et al. (24)CKD stage 5 HD or PD patients2 μg or 4 μg paricalcitol once a weekPlaceboiPTH level ≥300 pg/ml; serum calcium level of 8.0–10.5 mg/dl 12 wk2 consecutive 30% decreases from baseline in iPTH levels61/274NoUnknown
Coyne et al. (19)CKD stages 3 and 4Oral paricalcitol mean dosage 9.5 μg/wk PlaceboiPTH ≥150 pg/ml; eGFR between 15 to 60 ml/min; age ≥18 yr24 wk2 consecutive 30% decreases from baseline in iPTH levels107/1133YesUnknown
de Zeeuw et al. (9)CKD stages 2–4 (type 2 diabetes)Oral 1 μg or 2 μg paricalcitol once dailyPlaceboUACR of 11–339 mg/mmol and eGFR of 15–90 ml/min, and stable doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs for ≥3 mo60 dChange in UACR during treatment184/885YesUnknown
Agarwal et al. (25)CKD stages 3 and 4Oral paricalcitol mean dosage 9.5 μg/wkPlaceboiPTH ≥150 pg/mL; eGFR between 15 and 60 ml/min; age ≥18 yr24 wkProteinuria57/613YesUnknown
Fishbane et al. (26)CKD stages 2–4Oral paricalcitol 1 μg once dailyPlaceboProteinuria >0.4 g/d; eGFR of 15– 90 ml/min; iPTH level ≥20 pg/ml and >250 pg/m; age 18–85 yr6 moChange in UACR during treatment28/275YesUnknown
Alborzi et al. (27)CKD stages 3 and 4Oral 1 μg or 2 μg paricalcitol once dailyPlaceboage >18 yr; eGFR >30 ml/min; a stable dose of an ACE inhibitor/ARB for 1 mo1 moProteinuria16/84YesUnknown
  • RCT, randomized controlled trial; ITT, intention-to-treat analysis; HD, hemodialysis; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; PD, peritoneal dialysis; eGFR, estimated GFR; UACR, urine albumin/creatinine ratio; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.