Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants in the Nurses’ Health Study

All (N=1764)ACR <5 mg/g (n=1303)ACR ≥5 mg/g (n=440)P Valuea
Age (yr)74.0 (72.3, 75.8)73.9 (72.1, 75.6)74.5 (72.8, 76.3)<0.001
Caucasian98.898.898.60.82
Hypertension58.155.365.2<0.001
Systolic BP (mmHg)130 (120, 140)130 (120, 140)140 (130, 150)<0.001
Diastolic BP (mmHg)80 (70, 80)80 (70, 80)80 (70, 80)0.06
Diabetes12.47.925.9<0.001
History of cardiovascular disease7.35.712.1<0.001
Current smoker4.64.16.40.05
Alcohol intake (g/d)0.9 (0.0, 5.8)0.9 (0, 6.0)0 (0, 4.0)0.06
Activity level (METs/wk)11.5 (4.2, 23.7)12.8 (4.9, 25.5)7.0 (2.4, 20.2)<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)24.8 (22.3, 28.3)24.7 (22.2, 27.9)24.9 (22.1, 29.2)0.19
Depression6.46.56.10.82
Hypertension medication use49.247.855.90.003
Depression medication use7.97.88.40.65
Analgesic medication use76.376.874.80.38
Insulin use2.51.35.9<0.001
Postmenopausal hormone use0.03
 current48.047.839.6
 past27.025.128.4
 never24.722.626.6
Participant highest education level0.11
 RN73.273.871.8
 BA19.719.720.2
 MA or DR7.16.68.0
Spouse’s highest education level0.22
 less than high school1.61.42.5
 some high school5.04.75.5
 high school graduate37.036.239.1
 college graduate25.426.622.5
 grad school20.120.518.4
 missing10.910.712.1
PCr in 2000 (mg/dl)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)0.8 (0.7, 0.9)0.8 (0.7, 1.0)0.02
eGFR in 2000 by CKD-EPI (ml/min per 1.73 m2)72 (61, 83)72 (61, 84)70 (57, 82)0.01
eGFR in 2000 by cystatin C (ml/min per 1.73 m2)57 (49, 65)57.8 (50, 66)54 (43, 62)<0.001
eGFR in 2000 by cystatin C + PCr (ml/min per 1.73 m2)66 (58, 75)67 (59, 76)63 (51, 73)<0.001
  • Results are expressed as median (interquartile range) or percentage. ACR, albumin/creatinine ratio; BMI, body mass index; PCr, plasma creatinine; eGFR, estimated GFR; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation.

  • a Comparison between ACR <5 and ≥5 mg/g.