Table 2.

Multivariable-adjusted cause-specific hazard ratios

VariablesHazard Ratio (95% CI)P Valuea
Sudden Cardiac DeathNonsudden Cardiac DeathNoncardiac Death
Age1.35 (1.11–1.65)1.77 (1.39–2.25)1.51 (1.34–1.70)0.24
Black patients0.77 (0.56–1.06)0.56 (0.39–0.81)0.89 (0.73–1.08)0.09
Diabetes1.76 (1.25–2.48)1.37 (0.94–2.00)1.06 (0.87–1.30)0.04b
Ischemic heart disease1.99 (1.43–2.78)1.63 (1.11–2.39)0.89 (0.73–1.08)< 0.001b,c
Heart failure1.21 (0.88–1.65)1.50 (1.04–2.17)1.25 (1.03–1.51)0.63
Arrhythmia1.07 (0.77–1.48)1.14 (0.79–1.65)1.30 (1.07–1.58)0.55
Peripheral vascular disease1.57 (1.12–2.20)1.26 (0.83–1.92)1.25 (0.99–1.58)0.54
Other heart disease1.25 (0.88–1.77)1.35 (0.89–2.04)1.28 (1.03–1.58)0.96
Body mass index0.78 (0.66–0.92)0.93 (0.77–1.12)0.80 (0.72–0.88)0.31
Systolic blood pressure0.96 (0.83–1.12)0.76 (0.64–0.91)0.99 (0.90–1.09)0.03c,d
Serum creatinine0.71 (0.58–0.86)1.07 (0.86–1.33)0.78 (0.69–0.88)0.02c,d
Serum alkaline phosphatase1.18 (1.05–1.32)1.18 (1.02–1.37)1.08 (0.99–1.17)0.37
Serum albumin0.87 (0.73–1.03)0.80 (0.66–0.99)0.76 (0.69–0.84)0.44
Serum phosphorus1.22 (1.05–1.42)1.22 (1.02–1.47)1.12 (1.01–1.23)0.49
  • Hazard ratios for continuous predictors are given per 1 SD increase. The likelihood ratio test statistic for any differences in the hazards ratios between any two causes of death for any variable in the above model was highly significant (χ2=73.4; degrees of freedom = 28; P<0.001). CI, confidence interval.

  • a P values for testing equality of hazard ratios between the three causes of death in the multivariable cause-specific hazards model. For those statistically different, the differences were compared across each group.

  • b Sudden cardiac death versus noncardiac death (P<0.05).

  • c Nonsudden cardiac versus noncardiac death (P<0.05).

  • d Sudden cardiac death versus nonsudden cardiac death (P<0.05).