Table 2.

Urine biomarkers and microscopy by primary outcome

AllNo Primary OutcomePrimary OutcomePa
Urine biomarkers
    n24917772
    NGAL (ng/ml)62 (5.8 to 1110)43 (4.9 to 388)203 (21 to 2709)<0.001
    KIM-1 (ng/ml)2.8 (0.6 to 9.8)2.5 (0.5 to 7.3)4.1 (1.2 to 13.3)<0.001
    IL-18 (pg/ml)70 (0 to 437)61 (0 to 348)103 (0 to 573)0.002
    FeNa (%)0.9 (0.1 to 4.8)0.8 (0.1 to 5.0)1.0 (0.1 to 4.3)0.95
    FeUrea (%)13.5 (4.9 to 27.9)14.0 (5.0 to 27.9)10.1 (3.9 to 28.7)0.03
Urine microscopy
    n16511649Pb
    score 021 (13)18 (16)3 (6)0.006
    score 151 (31)39 (34)12 (24)
    score 274 (45)50 (43)24 (49)
    score ≥319 (12)9 (8)10 (20)
  • The values are presented as medians (10th to 90th percentile) or n (%). Primary outcome was a composite of worsened AKIN stage (progression to higher stage following AKI diagnosis based on peak SCr or dialysis requirement) or in-hospital mortality. AKI, acute kidney injury; SCr, serum creatinine; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; FeNa, fractional excretion of sodium; FeUrea, fractional excretion of urea.

  • a Value for Wilcoxon test.

  • b P value for Jonckheere-Terpstra trend test.