Table 2.

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis of predictors of incident CKD (n = 43,305)

Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Unadjusted P ValueAdjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted P Value
Age (in decades)1.98 (1.93, 2.03)<0.011.60 (1.55, 1.65)<0.01
Gender
<0.01<0.01
    female (versus male)1.53 (1.45, 1.62)1.60 (1.51, 1.70)
Race/ethnicity
    African American0.63 (0.55, 0.72)<0.010.99 (0.86, 1.13)0.88
    Hispanic/Latino0.81 (0.72, 0.92)<0.011.04 (0.92, 1.18)0.50
    Caucasian (referent)1.001.00
    other0.79 (0.66, 0.93)0.011.01 (0.86, 1.20)0.88
    missing0.83 (0.78, 0.89)<0.010.92 (0.86, 0.98)0.01
Comorbidities
    diabetes1.57 (1.48, 1.67)<0.011.96 (1.84, 2.09)<0.01
    coronary heart disease1.44 (1.33, 1.55)<0.011.24 (1.15, 1.33)<0.01
    cerebrovascular disease1.42 (1.25, 1.60)<0.011.08 (0.95, 1.22)0.25
    congestive heart failure1.90 (1.71, 2.11)<0.011.51 (1.36, 1.67)<0.01
    peripheral vascular disease1.54 (0.87, 2.72)0.141.82 (1.03, 3.22)0.04
eGFR, baseline (per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2)0.50 (0.49, 0.52)<0.010.55 (0.54, 0.57)<0.01
Systolic BP, baseline (per 10 mmHg)1.11 (1.09, 1.12)<0.011.06 (1.04, 1.08)<0.01
Systolic BP, time-varying (per 10 mmHg)1.13 (1.11, 1.15)<0.011.06 (1.04, 1.08)<0.01
HDL <40 mg/dl0.93 (0.87, 1.00)0.061.17 (1.08, 1.26)<0.01
Body mass index0.98 (0.98, 0.99)<0.011.01 (1.01, 1.02)<0.01
A1c-DM subpopulation (n = 9982, imputed missing)1.15 (1.11, 1.19)<0.011.32 (1.26, 1.37)<0.01
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; eGFR, estimated GFR; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; DM, diabetes mellitus.