Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

Total (n = 43,305)No CKD (n = 38,069, 87.9%)CKD (n = 5236, 12.1%)P Value for Comparison
Age, years60 (52, 69)59 (51, 68)69 (62, 75)<0.01
Male gender20,010 (46.2%)18,139 (47.7%)1871 (35.7%)<0.01
Race/ethnicity
    African American2352 (5.4%)2128 (5.6%)224 (4.3%)<0.01
    Hispanic/Latino2573 (5.9%)2285 (6.0%)288 (5.5%)0.14
    Caucasian23,326 (53.9%)20,057 (52.7%)3269 (62.4%)<0.01
    other1297 (3.0%)1155 (3.0%)142 (2.7%)0.19
    missing13,757 (31.8%)12,444 (32.7%)1313 (25.1%)<0.01
Period of observation, months44.0 (28.6, 60.1)45.8 (30.0, 61.4)33.2 (21.0, 47.3)<0.01
Number of creatinine measurements6 (4, 9)5 (4, 8)11 (8, 17)<0.01
Number of BP measurements per year of follow-up3.2 (2.0, 4.9)3.1 (2.0, 4.8)3.7 (2.4, 5.5)<0.01
Number of primary care visits per year of follow-up3.5 (2.3, 5.4)3.3 (2.2, 5.1)4.9 (3.1, 7.6)<0.01
Number of hospitalizations per year of follow-up0 (0, 0.4)0 (0, 0.4)0 (0, 0.6)<0.01
Comorbidities
    diabetes8154 (18.8%)6753 (17.7%)1401 (26.8%)<0.01
    coronary heart disease5419 (12.5%)4408 (11.6%)1011 (19.3%)<0.01
    cerebrovascular disease1480 (3.4%)1201 (3.2%)279 (5.3%)<0.01
    congestive heart failure1872 (4.3%)1432 (3.8%)440 (8.4%)<0.01
    peripheral vascular disease56 (0.1%)44 (0.1%)12 (0.2%)0.05
eGFR, baseline (ml/min per 1.73 m2)82.0 (72.1, 92.9)83.6 (73.6, 94.2)71.6 (65.7, 80.1)<0.01
Baseline systolic BP132 (122, 145)132 (122, 144)138 (126, 150)<0.01
Baseline diastolic blood pressure BP80 (76, 90)81 (76, 90)80 (72, 88)<0.01
Systolic blood pressure BP, time-weighted132.1 (125.0, 139.8)131.7 (124.7, 139.2)135.7 (128.0, 144.0)<0.01
ACEI or ARB at baseline15,945 (36.8%)13,518 (35.5%)2427 (46.4%)<0.01
LDL cholesterol (n = 41822)113.4 (94.5, 132.4)113.8 (94.8, 132.7)110.4 (92.7, 130.5)<0.01
HDL cholesterol (n = 37083)51.2 (42.7, 62.5)51.2 (42.7, 62.5)52.0 (42.9, 63.0)0.18
A1c-DM subpopulation (n = 9796)7.1 (6.5, 8.1)7.1 (6.5, 8.1)7.3 (6.6, 8.2)<0.01
  • The data are presented as medians (interquartile range) or n values (%). Chi-squared likelihood ratio test was used for categorical variable tests of significance. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used for continuous variable tests of significance. CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated GFR; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; DM, diabetes mellitus.