Table 3.

Association between urine volume and renal decline in the general population (n = 2148)

24-hour Urine VolumeMild to Moderate Renal DeclineaRapid Renal Declineb
n = 861ORc (95% CI)n = 214ORc (95% CI)
Age and Gender AdjustedMultivariate AdjustedAge and Gender AdjustedMultivariate Adjusted
<1 L/day1461.30 (1.00 to 1.70)1.33 (1.01 to 1.75)311.26 (0.81 to 1.97)1.32 (0.83 to 2.09)
1 to 1.9 L/day4541.01.01111.01.0
2 to 2.9 L/day2050.82 (0.66 to 1.02)0.84 (0.67 to 1.05)620.97 (0.68 to 1.36)1.01 (0.70 to 1.44)
≥ 3 L/day560.67 (0.47 to 0.96)0.66 (0.46 to 0.94)100.48 (0.24 to 0.94)0.46 (0.23 to 0.92)
  • OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.

  • a Mild to moderate renal decline: eGFR decline from baseline between 1% and 4.9%.

  • b Rapid renal decline: estimated GFR decline from baseline ≥5%.

  • c Odds ratios were estimated using multinomial regression.

  • d Adjusted for age (in 1-year increments), gender, baseline estimated GFR, dipstick protein ≥1 g/L, medication use for hypertension (including diuretics), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.