Table 1.

Characteristics of study participants at baseline according to whether glomerular hyperfiltration or proteinuria developed during the 6-year follow-up period

Glomerular Hyperfiltration Status during the Follow-up PeriodPaProteinuria Status during the Follow-up PeriodPa
No Glomerular HyperfiltrationGlomerular HyperfiltrationNo ProteinuriaProteinuria
Number966944984651653
Age (years)b48.0 ± 4.247.9 ± 3.90.7548.0 ± 4.247.8 ± 4.20.06
Body mass index (kg/m2)b,c23.4 ± 2.923.1 ± 3.10.0423.3 ± 2.823.8 ± 3.3<0.01
Obesity (body mass index ≥25) (%)26.826.10.7125.735.2<0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)b129.0 ± 18.4129.9 ± 18.70.31128.3 ± 17.9133.0 ± 20.3<0.01
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)b80.5 ± 12.181.3 ± 12.10.1580.0 ± 11.783.0 ± 13.3<0.01
Antihypertensive medication (%)6.56.00.675.611.1<0.01
Hypertension (%)d33.733.60.9631.843.4<0.01
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)b5.6 ± 1.16.0 ± 2.0<0.015.6 ± 1.15.8 ± 1.4<0.01
Diabetes (%)6.515.4<0.016.011.1<0.01
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)b,e70.6 ± 8.9 (0.80 ± 0.10)58.6 ± 7.3 (0.66 ± 0.08)<0.0170.3 ± 9.1 (0.8 ± 0.1)69.2 ± 9.5 (0.8 ± 0.1)<0.01
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)b83.3 ± 11.9101.8 ± 11.9<0.0183.8 ± 12.385.6 ± 13.1<0.01
Current smoker (%)56.174.4<0.0155.464.7<0.01
Number of cigarettes smoked per dayf20 (0 to 30)20 (20 to 30)<0.0120 (0 to 30)20 (10 to 30)<0.01
Cumulative amount of smoking (pack-years)f25.0 (0 to 35.0)30.0 (20.0 to 40.0)<0.0125.0 (0 to 35.0)28.0 (12.3 to 39.0)<0.01
Regular leisure-time physical activity (%)18.412.50.0218.516.10.02
Alcohol consumption (g ethanol/day)f23.0 (3.3 to 46.0)29.6 (8.2 to 46.0)<0.0123.0 (3.3 to 46.0)23.0 (3.3 to 46.0)0.05
  • a Differences between the groups were evaluated by unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney test, or chi-squared test.

  • b Values are expressed as mean ± SD.

  • c Calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

  • d Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg or greater, or if the participant was receiving antihypertensive medications.

  • e Values in parentheses are expressed as milligrams per deciliter.

  • f Values are median, with interquartile range in parentheses.