Table 4.

Hazard ratios for the incidence of glomerular hyperfiltration and dipstick proteinuria during the 6-year follow-up period

Hazard Ratio for the Incidence of Glomerular HyperfiltrationaHazard Ratio for the Incidence of Dipstick Proteinuriaa
Multiple-Adjusted ModelbFurther Multiple-Adjusted ModelcMultiple-Adjusted ModelbFurther Multiple-Adjusted Modelc
Cumulative cigarette consumption
    nonsmokers1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    0.1 to 20 pack-years1.40 (0.96 to 2.06)1.07 (0.73 to 1.57)1.39 (1.15 to 1.68)1.37 (1.13 to 1.65)
    20.1 to 40 pack-years1.90 (1.43 to 2.52)1.40 (1.05 to 1.87)1.49 (1.29 to 1.72)1.46 (1.26 to 1.69)
    ≥40.1 pack-years2.03 (1.47 to 2.81)1.42 (1.03 to 1.96)1.78 (1.51 to 2.11)1.74 (1.47 to 2.05)
P for trend<0.0010.01<0.001<0.001
Age (per 5 years)0.96 (0.84 to 1.09)1.13 (1.00 to 1.29)0.93 (0.87 to 1.00)0.94 (0.88 to 1.01)
Body mass index (per 1 kg/m2)d0.95 (0.92 to 0.98)0.99 (0.95 to 1.02)1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)1.02 (1.00 to 1.04)
Systolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)0.99 (0.92 to 1.07)0.96 (0.89 to 1.03)1.06 (1.02 to 1.11)1.06 (1.02 to 1.11)
Diastolic blood pressure (per 10 mmHg)1.12 (1.00 to 1.26)1.17 (1.04 to 1.31)1.10 (1.03 to 1.17)1.10 (1.03 to 1.17)
Antihypertensive medication0.88 (0.57 to 1.37)0.93 (0.60 to 1.45)1.81 (1.51 to 2.16)1.82 (1.52 to 2.18)
Diabetes status
    normal1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    impaired fasting glucose1.54 (1.13 to 2.11)1.38 (1.01 to 1.88)1.12 (0.94 to 1.34)1.11 (0.93 to 1.32)
    diabetes2.88 (2.17 to 3.82)1.72 (1.30 to 2.29)1.55 (1.30 to 1.86)1.50 (1.25 to 1.79)
Alcohol consumption (per 10 g ethanol/day)1.07 (1.03 to 1.12)1.03 (0.99 to 1.08)1.02 (0.99 to 1.04)1.01 (0.99 to 1.04)
Regular leisure-time physical activity0.72 (0.53 to 0.97)0.99 (0.73 to 1.34)0.96 (0.83 to 1.11)0.97 (0.84 to 1.12)
Estimated GFR (per 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2)e2.72 (2.51 to 2.95)e1.07 (1.02 to 1.11)
  • a 95% confidence intervals in parentheses.

  • b Listed variables except for estimated glomerular filtration rate were included in this model.

  • c Further adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate in addition to the variables in the multiple-adjusted model.

  • d Calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

  • e —, not available.