Table 5.

Independent determinants of higher SAF

Total Cohort Adjusted R2 = 0.17DM Adjusted R2 = 0.22No DM Adjusted R2 = 0.11
B (95% CI)βP–valueB (95% CI)βP–valueB (95% CI)βP–value
Hemoglobin (g/dl)−0.07 (−0.09 to −0.05)−0.16<0.01−0.15 (−0.20 to −0.10)−0.32<0.01−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.03)−0.12<0.01
Diabetes0.22 (0.15 to 0.30)0.13<0.01
Age (10 years)0.08 (0.05 to 0.11)0.12<0.010.10 (0.06 to 0.13)0.15<0.01
Smoking (10 pack years)0.03 (0.01 to 0.05)0.09<0.010.05 (0.03 to 0.06)0.15<0.01
eGFR (10 ml/min per 1.73 m2)−0.06 (−0.09 to −0.03)−0.10<0.01−0.07 (−0.10 to −0.04)−0.13<0.01
Urine PCRa0.16 (0.06 to 0.26)0.08<0.010.33 (0.13 to 0.54)0.17<0.01
Previous CVE0.10 (0.04 to 0.17)0.07<0.010.11 (0.03 to 0.18)0.08<0.01
No formal qualifications0.08 (0.02 to 0.14)0.06<0.01
Female gender−0.09 (−0.15 to −0.02)−0.07<0.01−0.28 (−0.43 to −0.14)−0.21<0.01
IMD score0.003 (0.01 to 0.006)<0.01
Ever smoked0.07 (0.01 to 0.13)0.06<0.01
Diastolic BP (5 mmHg)−0.05 (−0.09 to −0.01)−0.16<0.01
PWV (1 m/s)0.04 (0.006 to 0.08)0.13<0.01
  • B, unstandardized coefficient (95% confidence intervals [CIs]); β, standardized coefficient; eGFR, estimated GFR; CVE, cardiovascular events; IMD, indices of multiple deprivation; PWV, pulse wave velocity.

  • a Log-transformed data.