Table 3.

Incidence rates and hazard ratios for the incidence of glomerular hyperfiltration during the 6-year follow-up period

Incidence RatebHazard Ratioa
Crude ModelMultiple-Adjusted ModelscFurther Multiple-Adjusted Modelsd
Smoking status
    nonsmokers5.8 (66/11402)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    past smokers4.5 (49/10895)0.78 (0.54 to 1.12)0.73 (0.50 to 1.06)0.83 (0.57 to 1.20)
    current smokers11.5 (334/29076)1.98 (1.52 to 2.58)1.82 (1.39 to 2.38)1.32 (1.01 to 1.73)
Daily cigarette consumption
    nonsmokers5.8 (66/11402)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    1 to 20 cigarettes/day10.5 (175/16696)1.81 (1.36 to 2.40)1.72 (1.29 to 2.29)1.33 (1.00 to 1.77)
    21 cigarettes/day12.8 (159/12380)2.21 (1.66 to 2.95)1.99 (1.48 to 2.68)1.36 (1.01 to 1.83)
P for trend<0.001<0.0010.04
Cumulative cigarette consumption
    nonsmokers5.8 (66/11402)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)1.00 (reference)
    0.1 to 20 pack-years8.3 (45/5434)1.43 (0.98 to 2.08)1.40 (0.96 to 2.06)1.07 (0.73 to 1.57)
    20.1 to 40 pack-years11.8 (190/16124)2.03 (1.54 to 2.69)1.90 (1.43 to 2.52)1.40 (1.05 to 1.87)
    ≥40.1 pack-years13.2 (99/7518)2.26 (1.66 to 3.09)2.03 (1.47 to 2.81)1.42 (1.03 to 1.96)
P for trend<0.001<0.0010.01
  • a 95% confidence intervals in parentheses.

  • b Incidence rates are expressed as incidence per 1000 person-years, with number of cases per person-years in parentheses.

  • c Adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication (yes/no), diabetes status (normal, impaired fasting glucose, and diabetes), alcohol consumption, and regular leisure-time physical activity (yes/no).

  • d Further adjusted for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate in addition to the variables in the multiple-adjusted models.