Table 1.

Characteristics of prospective cohort studies that reported the development of chronic kidney disease (eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 or CrCl <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and/or proteinuria in patients with metabolic syndrome

Study, Year (Reference)CountryNo. of Individuals with MetS/Study Sample SizeMen (%)Mean Age ± SD or Range (Years); or PercentagesDuration of Follow-up (Years)Definition of Metabolic SyndromeDefinition of CKD and/or Microalbuminuria
Bonnet et al., 2006 (11)France176/273863.646.7 ± 9.8 (for men) and 48.4 ± 9.8 (for women)6Modified NCEP-ATP III, IDFProteinuria defined as urinary albumin concentration of >20 mg/ or dipstick positive for proteinuria
Kitiyakara et al., 2007 (13)Thailand227/20678743.0 ± 4.812NCEP-ATP III, Modified NCEP-ATP III, IDFCKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD)
Kurella et al., 2005 (10)United States2110/10,0964554.5 ± 5.59NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD)
Lucove et al., 2008 (12)United States (American Indians)896/238634Age 45 to 54 years, 51%; age 55 to 64 years, 29%; age ≥65 years, 17%6.7NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD) or albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g or greater; results for eGFR and proteinuria reported separately
Luk et al., 2008 (21)Hong Kong2985/582943.755.6 ± 12.84.6Modified NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD)
Ninomiya et al., 2006 (22)Japan353/144032.960 ± 105Modified NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD)
Rashidi et al., 2007 (23)Iran1010/460747.648 ± 123NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as CrCl <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (CG)
Ryu et al., 2009 (25)South Korea787/1068510037.4 ± 4.83.8Modified NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD)
Sun et al., 2010 (24)Taiwan17,039/118,92459.546.5 ± 12.13.5Modified NCEP-ATP III, IDFCKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD) or ≥1+ proteinuria
Tozawa et al., 2007 (14)Japan884/63718049 ± 95Modified NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD) or dipstick proteinuria (≥1+); results for eGFR and proteinuria reported separately
Watanabe et al., 2010 (26)Japan3679/34,9863461.1 ± 10.35.8Modified NCEP-ATP IIICKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (MDRD), proteinuria defined as urine dipstick ≥1+
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; NCEP-ATP III, National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III; IDF, International Diabetes Federation; MDRD, Modified Diet in Renal Disease; CG, Cockroft–Gault; CrCl, creatinine clearance; eGFR, estimated GFR; MetS, metabolic syndrome.