Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

Total Cohort (n = 1707)Diabetes Mellitus (n = 284)No Diabetes (n = 1423)
Age (years)72.9 ± 973.5 ± 8a72.8 ± 9
Female gender (n [%])1036 (61)158 (56)878 (62)
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)52.5 ± 10.449.3 ± 10a53.1 ± 10.4
PWV (m/s)9.9 ± 210.4 ± 2a9.8 ± 2
Skin AF (AU)2.7 ± 0.63.0 ± 0.7a2.7 ± 0.6
Waist to hip ratio0.91 ± 0.090.94 ± 0.09a0.9 ± 0.09
Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.2 ± 1.412.7 ± 1.4a13.3 ± 1.4
Anemia (n [%])390 (22.8)102 (35.9)a288 (20.2)
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.8 ± 1.24.0 ± 0.8a4.9 ± 1.2
Albumin (g/L)40.7 ± 3.240.5 ± 3.440.7 ± 3.1
Previous CVE (n [%])379 (22.2)84 (29.6)a295 (20.7)
RAASi use (n [%])1101 (64.5)237 (83.5)a864 (60.7)
Diastolic BP (mmHg)73 ± 1169 ± 10a74 ± 11
Total pack years1.00 (0 to 18.75)4.75 (0 to 21)a0.5 (0 to 17.5)
Urine ACR (mg/mmol)0.33 (0 to 1.5)0.97 (0.13 to 3.7)a0.3 (0 to 1.2)
No qualifications (n [%])935 (54.8)161 (56.7)774 (54.4)
  • Data are mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or number (%). eGFR, estimated GFR; PWV, pulse wave velocity; AF, autofluorescence; CVE, cardiovascular event; ACR, albumin to creatinine ratio.

  • a P < 0.05 when compared with nondiabetic participants.