Table 2.

Characteristics of study participants at baseline according to smoking habits

Smoking Habits
NonsmokersPast SmokersCurrent Smokers
Number222721355756
Age (years)a47.7 ± 4.348.4 ± 4.2b47.9 ± 4.2bc
Body mass index (kg/m2)a,d23.7 ± 2.923.8 ± 2.823.2 ± 2.9bc
Obesity (body mass index ≥25) (%)30.130.024.4bc
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)a130.8 ± 17.3132.1 ± 18.0127.3 ± 18.7bc
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)a82.1 ± 11.582.7 ± 12.079.1 ± 12.1bc
Antihypertensive medication (%)7.19.2b5.3bc
Hypertension (%)e37.141.1b29.7bc
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)a5.7 ± 1.15.7 ± 1.15.6 ± 1.1bc
Diabetes (%)6.47.76.7
Serum creatinine (μmol/L)a71.8 ± 9.271.9 ± 9.068.8 ± 9.1bc
Estimated GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)a82.1 ± 12.081.5 ± 11.785.9 ± 12.6bc
Number of cigarettes smoked per dayf0N/A20.0 (20.0 to 30.0)b
Cumulative amount of smoking (pack-years)f0N/A30.0 (24.0 to 42.0)b
Regular leisure-time physical activity (%)22.223.414.5bc
Alcohol consumption (g ethanol/day)f16.4 (1.6 to 32.9)23.0 (8.2 to 46.0)23.0 (6.6 to 46.0)b
  • Differences between the groups were evaluated by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis test, or chi-squared test with Bonferroni multiple comparison correction.

  • a Values are expressed as mean ± SD.

  • b P < 0.02 versus nonsmoker.

  • c P < 0.02 versus past smoker.

  • d Calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared.

  • e Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mmHg or greater, diastolic blood pressure 90 mmHg or greater, or if the participant was receiving antihypertensive medications.

  • f Values are median, with interquartile range in parentheses. N/A, not available.