Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of participants

Demographic CharacteristicsOverall (n = 3785)Hispanic (n = 497)Non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 1638)P1Non-Hispanic African American (n = 1650)P2
Age, years58.2 (11)56.3 (12)58.9 (11)<0.0158.1 (11)<0.01
Gender, n (%)<0.01
    Male2076 (55)288 (58)982 (60)0.43806 (49)
    Female1709 (45)209 (42)656 (40)844 (51)
Annual household income, n (%)<0.01<0.01
    <$20,0001213 (32)313 (63)254 (16)646 (39)
    $20,001–$50,000925 (24)92 (19)416 (25)417 (25)
    $50,001–$100,000694 (18)24 (5)455 (28)215 (13)
    >$100,000369 (10)12 (2)295 (18)62 (4)
    Missing584 (15)56 (11)218 (13)310 (9)
Education, n (%)<0.01<0.01
    <7th grade210 (6)183 (37)7 (0.4)20 (1.2)
    7th to 12th grade610 (16)110 (22)83 (5)417 (25)
    High school diploma728 (19)71 (14)291 (18)366 (22)
    Some college1112 (29)78 (16)467 (29)567 (34)
    College graduate1125 (30)55 (11)790 (48)280 (17)
Health insurance, n (%)<0.01<0.01
    Yes3085 (82)322 (65)1442 (88)1321 (80)
    No256 (7)113 (23)48 (3)95 (6)
    Missing444 (12)62 (12)148 (9)234 (14)
Ever seen a nephrologist2503 (66)265 (53)1131 (69)<0.011107 (67)<0.01
Kidney function measures
    Serum creatinine, mg/dl1.75 (0.6)1.88 (0.6)1.59 (0.5)<0.011.9 (0.6)0.77
    eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m242.8 (13)37.5 (13)43.7 (13)<0.0143.5 (14)<0.01
eGFR categories, ml/min/1.73 m2, n (%)
    <30734 (19)151 (30)278 (17)<0.01305 (18)<0.01
    30 to <40939 (25)162 (33)389 (24)388 (24)
    40 to <50999 (26)107 (22)462 (28)430 (26)
    50 to <60722 (19)51 (10)349 (21)322 (20)
    >60391 (10)26 (5)160 (10)205 (12)
24-hour urine protein, g, median (IQR)0.18 (0.1–0.9)0.72 (0.1–3.3)0.12 (0.1–0.5)<0.010.24 (0.1–1.1)<0.01
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors
    Current cigarette smoker, n (%)504 (13)29 (6)155 (9)0.01320 (19)<0.01
    Hypertension, n (%)3269 (86)443 (89)1293 (79)<0.011533 (93)0.01
    Systolic BP, mmHg129 (22)136 (24)122 (19)<0.01133 (23)0.01a
    Diastolic BP, mmHg72 (13)73 (13)69 (11)<0.0174 (14)0.07
    Diabetes mellitus, n (%)1831 (48)334 (67)649 (40)<0.01848 (51)<0.01
    Hemoglobin A1C6.7 (2)7 (2)6.3 (1)<0.016.9 (2)0.29
    BMI, kg/m232 (8)32 (7)31 (8)0.2033 (8)<0.01
    Total cholesterol, mg/dl184 (45)189 (54)180 (42)<0.01a186 (46)0.14
    LDL cholesterol, mg/dl103 (36)104 (40)99 (32)0.03a106 (37)0.24
    HDL cholesterol, mg/dl48 (15)43 (13)47 (15)<0.0149 (16)<0.01
    Family history of premature CHD, n (%)603 (16)50 (10)322 (20)<0.01231 (14)0.02
Nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors
    Hemoglobin, g/dl12.6 (2)12.1 (2)13.2 (2)<0.0112.2 (2)0.19
    Serum calcium corrected for albumin,b mg/dl9.2 (0.5)9.2 (0.4)9.2 (0.4)0.569.3 (0.5)0.01
    Serum phosphorus, mg/dl3.7 (0.7)4 (0.7)3.6 (0.6)<0.013.8 (0.7)<0.01
    Total iPTH, pg/ml, median (IQR)54 (35–90)62 (41–102)43 (30–69)<0.01a67 (41–115)0.09
    hs-CRP, mg/dl, Median (IQR)2.6 (1.1–6.6)2.5 (1.0–5.7)2.15 (0.9–5.2)0.263.3 (1.3–8.2)<0.01
  • Values indicate mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise specified. eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; hs-CRF, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; IQR, interquartile range; P1, Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic Caucasian; P2, Hispanic versus Non-Hispanic African American.

  • a No longer significant after adjustment for age, gender, education, eGFR.

  • b Corrected calcium = Measured serum calcium + [0.8*(4–serum albumin)].