Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the normal controls, patient controls, and the renal artery stenosis patients

PatientsP-ValueaP-Valueb
Normal (n = 30)Control (n = 30)RAS (n = 84)
Patient characteristics
    age (years) ± SD35 ± 1263 ± 1273 ± 9<0.001<0.01
    female, n (%)16 (53%)17 (57%)48 (57%)0.720.96
    white, non-Hispanic, n (%)23 (77%)26 (87%)77 (92%)<0.001<0.01
    BMI25.9 ± 3.931.1 ± 8.728.6 ± 5.50.020.08
    systolic BP (mmHg)125 ± 2126 ± 16157 ± 31<0.001<0.01
    diastolic BP (mmHg)83 ± 378 ± 1072 ± 16<0.0010.13
    heart rate74 ± 365 ± 1166 ± 12<0.0010.96
Laboratory values
    serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.91 ± 0.100.85 ± 0.241.14 ± 0.410.003<0.01
    sCD40L (pg/ml)65.2 ± 7.4335.2 ± 211.6347.5 ± 248.3<0.0010.81
    platelet count (×1000)298 ± 27236 ± 54239 ± 73<0.0010.84
Indications for treatment, n (%)
    hypertensionNA24 (80%)84 (100%)NA<0.01
    congestive heart failureNA1 (3%)20 (24%)NA0.01
    renal dysfunctionNA0 (0%)18 (21%)NA0.06
    anginaNA21 (70%)31 (37%)NA0.02
Risk factors, n (%)
    diabetes mellitusNA7 (23%)21 (25%)NA0.86
    peripheral vascular diseaseNA1 (3%)43 (51%)NA<0.01
    hyperlipidemiaNA22 (73%)71 (85%)NA0.17
    coronary artery diseaseNA13 (43%)55 (65%)NA0.03
    previous MINA5 (17%)26 (31%)NA0.13
    history of smokingNA17 (57%)53 (63%)NA0.53
Medications, n (%)
    antiplatelet
    aspirinNA20 (67%)71 (85%)NA0.04
    thienopyridinesNA9 (30%)39 (46%)NA0.12
    warfarinNA2 (7%)11 (13%)NA0.34
  • Values are mean ± SD or number and percentage of patients. BMI, body mass index; sCD40L, soluble CD40 ligand; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, not applicable.

  • a Normal versus RAS.

  • b Patient control versus RAS.